skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Grani Har 2II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Grani skáld, Poem about Haraldr harðráði 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 298-9.

Grani skáldPoem about Haraldr harðráði
12

Dǫglingr ‘The lord’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

[1] Dǫglingr: ‘[…]inngr’ B

Close

danskt ‘Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

Close

hirð ‘for the retinue’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

[3] hirð: so A, B, hríð Mork, hǫrð H, Hr

kennings

hirð Hugins
‘for the retinue of Huginn ’
   = RAVENS

for the retinue of Huginn → RAVENS

notes

[3, 4] hirð Hugins ‘for the retinue of Huginn <raven> [RAVENS]’: This is an unusual kenning for ‘ravens’, because such circumscriptions normally have a base-word that is a kinship term (see Meissner 119; but see ferð gylðis ‘the company of the wolf’ in ESk Run 9/2). However, hirð Hugins ‘the retinue of Huginn’ neatly parallels jóði ara ‘the brood of eagles’ (l. 2) and ætt arnar ‘the kin of the eagle’ (l. 5). Earlier eds construe Hugins with jól (jól Hugins ‘yule-feast of Huginn’), which could be taken quite literally (Haraldr fed the ravens) or else as a kenning for ‘carrion’ (so SnE 1998, II, 480). Huginn was one of Óðinn’s ravens (see SnE 1998, I, 91).

Close

hykk ‘I believe’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

[3] hykk: veitk H, verk Hr

Close

hilmi ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[3] hilmi: hilmir Hr, ‘h[…]me’ B

Close

gerðu ‘prepared’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[3] gerðu: gerði Hr, stýrðu A, 744ˣ, ‘st[…]’ B

Close

Hugins ‘of Huginn’

1. Huginn (noun m.): Huginn

[4] Hugins jól við ‑nes: ‘[…]’ B, ‘hugins hiol ' es’ 744ˣ

kennings

hirð Hugins
‘for the retinue of Huginn ’
   = RAVENS

for the retinue of Huginn → RAVENS

notes

[3, 4] hirð Hugins ‘for the retinue of Huginn <raven> [RAVENS]’: This is an unusual kenning for ‘ravens’, because such circumscriptions normally have a base-word that is a kinship term (see Meissner 119; but see ferð gylðis ‘the company of the wolf’ in ESk Run 9/2). However, hirð Hugins ‘the retinue of Huginn’ neatly parallels jóði ara ‘the brood of eagles’ (l. 2) and ætt arnar ‘the kin of the eagle’ (l. 5). Earlier eds construe Hugins with jól (jól Hugins ‘yule-feast of Huginn’), which could be taken quite literally (Haraldr fed the ravens) or else as a kenning for ‘carrion’ (so SnE 1998, II, 480). Huginn was one of Óðinn’s ravens (see SnE 1998, I, 91).

Close

jól ‘a yule-feast’

jól (noun n.; °; -): midwinter feast

[4] Hugins jól við ‑nes: ‘[…]’ B, ‘hugins hiol ' es’ 744ˣ

Close

við ‘by’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[4] Hugins jól við ‑nes: ‘[…]’ B, ‘hugins hiol ' es’ 744ˣ

notes

[4] við nes Þjólar ‘by Þjólarnes’: Could go with the first cl. (so Skj B; Skald). Þjólarnes (no longer an extant p. n.) was located by the river Gudenå in Jylland (Jutland).

Close

nes ‘nes’

nes (noun n.; °-s; -, gen. -ja): headland < Þjólarnes (noun n.)

[4] Hugins jól við ‑nes: ‘[…]’ B, ‘hugins hiol ' es’ 744ˣ

notes

[4] við nes Þjólar ‘by Þjólarnes’: Could go with the first cl. (so Skj B; Skald). Þjólarnes (no longer an extant p. n.) was located by the river Gudenå in Jylland (Jutland).

Close

Þjólar ‘Þjólar’

[4] Þjólar‑: þjóðar B

notes

[4] við nes Þjólar ‘by Þjólarnes’: Could go with the first cl. (so Skj B; Skald). Þjólarnes (no longer an extant p. n.) was located by the river Gudenå in Jylland (Jutland).

Close

spornaði ‘trod’

2. sporna (verb): tread

Close

allvítt ‘Far and wide’

allvítt (adv.): far and wide

Close

við ‘on’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[6] við: um H, of Hr

Close

valfalli ‘the fallen carrion’

valfall (noun n.): slaughter

Close

vargr ‘the wolf’

vargr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wolf

[7] vargr: ‘[…]gr’ H

Close

vildi ‘it pleased’

vilja (verb): want, intend

Close

vel ‘truly’

vel (adv.): well, very

[8] vel njóti: vel njóti hann all

Close

njóti ‘enjoy’

njóta (verb): enjoy, use

[8] vel njóti: vel njóti hann all

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Mork and H-Hr this st. follows st. 1 above. In SnE the first two ll. illustrate that dǫglingr lit. ‘descendant of the legendary king Dagr’ is a heiti for ‘ruler, dignitary’.

For this campaign, see Note to st. 1 [All] above. — [1-4]: Because B is difficult to read, AM 744 4°ˣ (744ˣ), an early C18th copy of B by Jón Ólafsson, has been consulted selectively. — [3]: This l. has significant variants. (a) The present edn follows the Mork version but replaces hríð ‘storm, onslaught’ (l. 3) (so Mork) with hirð (f. dat. sg.) ‘retinue’ (so A, B), which restores the internal rhyme (-irð- : ‑erð-) and retains the imagery from ll. 1-2 of Haraldr preparing a feast of carrion for the beasts of battle. It looks as though <ri> in Mork is a misreading of the original abbreviation for <ir>. The H and Hr versions (hǫrð veitk hilmi gerðu ‘I know that the leader performed harsh’ (so H); hǫrð verk hilmir gerði ‘the leader performed harsh deeds’ (so Hr)) are secondary and must represent attempts to restore the missing internal rhyme (see Louis-Jensen 1977, 153). (b) A and B provide stýrðu lit. ‘controlled, ruled, possessed’ (l. 3) for Mork’s gerðu (past inf.) ‘prepared, made’. The syntax of the resulting cl. is not clear. Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 222, II, 404-5) suggests that stýra (stýrðu past inf.) here means ‘prepare’ although the verb is otherwise not attested in that meaning (see Fritzner: stýra; LP: stýra). Furthermore, stýra is regularly construed with a dat. object (see NS §102.e), and jól ‘yule-feast’ (l. 4) is n. acc. pl. (c) Skj B (and Skald) emends hilmi (m. dat. or acc. sg.) ‘the leader’ to hilmis (m. gen. sg.) qualifying hirð ‘retinue’ (l. 3), taken as f. acc. sg.: hykk hirð hilmis gerðu hugins jól translated as jeg ved, at kongens hird foranstaltede en fest for ravnen ‘I know that the king’s retinue prepared a feast for the raven’ (ll. 3-4). This reading entails an emendation that goes against all ms. witnesses and shifts the focus from Haraldr to his retinue. (d) Another possible reading would be hykk hirð gerðu hilmi jól Hugins ‘I believe the retinue prepared the yule-feast of Huginn (i.e. ‘carrion’) for the ruler’, but again, this interpretation destroys the otherwise consistently applied imagery of Haraldr preparing a feast for the beasts of battle.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.