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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Grani Har 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Grani skáld, Poem about Haraldr harðráði 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 296-7.

Grani skáldPoem about Haraldr harðráði
12

Lét ‘let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

notes

[1, 4] lét aldrigi brô … þorna ‘never let the eyelashes … get dry’: I.e. Haraldr captured her and her sisters and she never stopped weeping. For the possible mistreatment of females of the conquered population by victorious vikings, see Note to ÞjóðA Magn 7/5, 6, Valg Har 3, 9 and Hskv Útdr 5.

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aldrigi ‘never’

aldrigi (adv.): never

notes

[1, 4] lét aldrigi brô … þorna ‘never let the eyelashes … get dry’: I.e. Haraldr captured her and her sisters and she never stopped weeping. For the possible mistreatment of females of the conquered population by victorious vikings, see Note to ÞjóðA Magn 7/5, 6, Valg Har 3, 9 and Hskv Útdr 5.

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ósvífr ‘The reckless one’

2. ósvífr (adj.): relentless, reckless

[2] ósvífr: ‘osuifis’ Flat

notes

[2] ósvífr (m. nom. sg.) ‘the reckless one’: ÍF 29 takes this adj. as a f. nom. sg. qualifying Hlǫkk and suggests the following reading: ósvífr Kraka drífu Hlǫkk lét aldrigi þorna br ‘the reckless Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift never let the eyelashes get dry’ (ÍF 29, 252-3; see also ÍF 28, 111 n.), which is possible. However, Hlǫkk is sg. (f. dat. sg.; dat. of possession) and both ÍF 29 and ÍF 28 follow Skj B in translating the woman-kenning as pl.

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Kraka ‘of Kraki’s’

kraki (noun m.; °-a; -ar): pole-ladder, Kraki

[2] Kraka: ‘crapa’ 39

kennings

Hlǫkk drífu Kraka
‘of the Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift ’
   = WOMAN

Kraki’s snow-drift → GOLD
the Hlǫkk of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[2] drífu Kraka ‘Kraki’s <legendary king’s> snow-drift [GOLD]’: Hrólfr kraki ‘Pole-ladder’ was a legendary Dan. king. The kenning refers to the episode in which Hrólfr, pursued by the Swedes, threw gold on the ground to distract his enemies (see SnE 1998, I, 58-9). For a similar ruse employed by Haraldr harðráði, see Þfagr Sveinn 8. Usually kennings with ‘snow’ or ‘ice’ as a base-word denote ‘silver’, but in this particular case the legendary associations establish that ‘gold’ is meant.

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Kraka ‘of Kraki’s’

kraki (noun m.; °-a; -ar): pole-ladder, Kraki

[2] Kraka: ‘crapa’ 39

kennings

Hlǫkk drífu Kraka
‘of the Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift ’
   = WOMAN

Kraki’s snow-drift → GOLD
the Hlǫkk of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[2] drífu Kraka ‘Kraki’s <legendary king’s> snow-drift [GOLD]’: Hrólfr kraki ‘Pole-ladder’ was a legendary Dan. king. The kenning refers to the episode in which Hrólfr, pursued by the Swedes, threw gold on the ground to distract his enemies (see SnE 1998, I, 58-9). For a similar ruse employed by Haraldr harðráði, see Þfagr Sveinn 8. Usually kennings with ‘snow’ or ‘ice’ as a base-word denote ‘silver’, but in this particular case the legendary associations establish that ‘gold’ is meant.

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drífu ‘snow-drift’

1. drífa (noun f.; °-u): snow-storm

kennings

Hlǫkk drífu Kraka
‘of the Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift ’
   = WOMAN

Kraki’s snow-drift → GOLD
the Hlǫkk of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[2] drífu Kraka ‘Kraki’s <legendary king’s> snow-drift [GOLD]’: Hrólfr kraki ‘Pole-ladder’ was a legendary Dan. king. The kenning refers to the episode in which Hrólfr, pursued by the Swedes, threw gold on the ground to distract his enemies (see SnE 1998, I, 58-9). For a similar ruse employed by Haraldr harðráði, see Þfagr Sveinn 8. Usually kennings with ‘snow’ or ‘ice’ as a base-word denote ‘silver’, but in this particular case the legendary associations establish that ‘gold’ is meant.

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drífu ‘snow-drift’

1. drífa (noun f.; °-u): snow-storm

kennings

Hlǫkk drífu Kraka
‘of the Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift ’
   = WOMAN

Kraki’s snow-drift → GOLD
the Hlǫkk of the GOLD → WOMAN

notes

[2] drífu Kraka ‘Kraki’s <legendary king’s> snow-drift [GOLD]’: Hrólfr kraki ‘Pole-ladder’ was a legendary Dan. king. The kenning refers to the episode in which Hrólfr, pursued by the Swedes, threw gold on the ground to distract his enemies (see SnE 1998, I, 58-9). For a similar ruse employed by Haraldr harðráði, see Þfagr Sveinn 8. Usually kennings with ‘snow’ or ‘ice’ as a base-word denote ‘silver’, but in this particular case the legendary associations establish that ‘gold’ is meant.

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Hlǫkk ‘of the Hlǫkk’

2. Hlǫkk (noun f.): Hlǫkk

[3] Hlǫkk: ‘hleck’ Flat

kennings

Hlǫkk drífu Kraka
‘of the Hlǫkk of Kraki’s snow-drift ’
   = WOMAN

Kraki’s snow-drift → GOLD
the Hlǫkk of the GOLD → WOMAN
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harða ‘the very dense’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[3] harða: harðla Hr

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þjokkum ‘forest’

[3] þjokkum: þykkum FskAˣ, F, H, Hr, þjǫkku E

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Hornskógi ‘at Hornslet’

Hornskógr (noun m.): [at Hornslet]

notes

[4] Hornskógi ‘forest at Hornslet’: Hornslet is located south-east of Randers in Jylland, Denmark. The p. n. Hornskógr, lit. ‘Horn-forest’, is no longer extant.

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brô ‘the eyelashes’

1. brá (noun f.; °brár; brár): eyelash, eyebrow

notes

[1, 4] lét aldrigi brô … þorna ‘never let the eyelashes … get dry’: I.e. Haraldr captured her and her sisters and she never stopped weeping. For the possible mistreatment of females of the conquered population by victorious vikings, see Note to ÞjóðA Magn 7/5, 6, Valg Har 3, 9 and Hskv Útdr 5.

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þorna ‘get dry’

þorna (verb): [withered, get dry]

notes

[1, 4] lét aldrigi brô … þorna ‘never let the eyelashes … get dry’: I.e. Haraldr captured her and her sisters and she never stopped weeping. For the possible mistreatment of females of the conquered population by victorious vikings, see Note to ÞjóðA Magn 7/5, 6, Valg Har 3, 9 and Hskv Útdr 5.

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Fila ‘of the Filir’

Filir (noun m.): the Filir

[5] Fila: fjalla Flat

kennings

Dróttinn Fila
‘The lord of the Filir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

The lord of the Filir → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

notes

[5] dróttinn Fila ‘the lord of the Filir’: Filir were the inhabitants of Fjalir, the south-western part of Sunnfjord and the regions around Dalsfjorden (see Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 284-5). Fjalir is nom. pl. of ON fjǫl ‘board plank’, a f. ō-stem (Gmc *felō) with breaking and u-umlaut. The pl. ending -ir must be secondary (i-stem inflection, see ANG §379 Anm.). The ethnic name Filir (m. nom. pl.) is a m. u-stem formed to the p. n. See also Steinn Óldr 1/5, 8/6 and Anon (Sv) 1/3.

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dróttinn ‘The lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

Dróttinn Fila
‘The lord of the Filir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

The lord of the Filir → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

notes

[5] dróttinn Fila ‘the lord of the Filir’: Filir were the inhabitants of Fjalir, the south-western part of Sunnfjord and the regions around Dalsfjorden (see Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 284-5). Fjalir is nom. pl. of ON fjǫl ‘board plank’, a f. ō-stem (Gmc *felō) with breaking and u-umlaut. The pl. ending -ir must be secondary (i-stem inflection, see ANG §379 Anm.). The ethnic name Filir (m. nom. pl.) is a m. u-stem formed to the p. n. See also Steinn Óldr 1/5, 8/6 and Anon (Sv) 1/3.

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flótta ‘the fleeing troop’

flótti (noun m.): flight, fleeing

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grams ‘chieftain’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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til ‘down to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[6] til strandar ‘to the shore’: Skj B connects this prepositional phrase with the next cl. (varð út at reiða … til strandar ‘had to pay out riches … by the beach’). That interpretation creates an awkward w. o. (see NN §806) and entails an unattested meaning of the prep. til ‘to, towards’ (see Fritzner: til).

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strandar ‘the shore’

strǫnd (noun f.; °strandar, dat. -u/-; strandir/strendr): beach, shore

notes

[6] til strandar ‘to the shore’: Skj B connects this prepositional phrase with the next cl. (varð út at reiða … til strandar ‘had to pay out riches … by the beach’). That interpretation creates an awkward w. o. (see NN §806) and entails an unattested meaning of the prep. til ‘to, towards’ (see Fritzner: til).

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varð ‘had’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[7] varð: var 39

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reiða ‘pay’

2. reiða (verb): carry

[7] reiða: greiða FskAˣ

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allskjótt ‘very quickly’

allskjótt (adv.): [very quickly]

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faðir ‘father’

faðir (noun m.): father

kennings

faðir Dóttu
‘Dótta’s father ’
   = Þorkell geysa

Dótta’s father → Þorkell geysa
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Dóttu ‘Dótta’s’

dótta (noun f.): dótta

[8] Dóttu: so FskAˣ, Kˣ, 39, F, E, J2ˣ, H, Hr, dóttur Mork, Flat

kennings

faðir Dóttu
‘Dótta’s father ’
   = Þorkell geysa

Dótta’s father → Þorkell geysa

notes

[8] Dóttu ‘Dótta’: Mork and Flat have the variant dóttur ‘daughter’ for Dóttu (lectio facilior).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

During his campaign in Denmark in the summer of 1048, Haraldr burned the farmstead of the Dan. chieftain Þorkell geysa ‘Big-mouth’. He captured Þorkell’s daughters (one of whom was Dótta), and forced Þorkell to pay a hefty ransom for them.

For this campaign, see also Hharð Lv 4, ÞjóðA Lv 2, Bǫlv Hardr 8, Anon (HSig) 1 and Grani Har 2 below. — [5]: The l. echoes Steinn Óldr 1/5.

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