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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 9I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 259.

Glúmr GeirasonGráfeldardrápa
8910

hæm ‘’

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Hein ‘the whetstone’

hein (noun f.; °-ar): whetstone < heinþynntr (adj./verb p.p.)hein (noun f.; °-ar): whetstone < hein (noun f.): whetstonehein (noun f.; °-ar): whetstone

[1] Hein‑: heim U, ‘hæm’ FskBˣ

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[1] heinþynntan ‘whetstone-sharpened’: A hap. leg.

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þvitann ‘’

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þy[…] ‘’

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þynntan ‘sharpened’

2. þynna (verb): [sharpened] < heinþynntr (adj./verb p.p.)2. þynna (verb): [sharpened]2. þynna (verb): [sharpened]

[1] ‑þynntan: ‘þy[…]’ U, þungan A

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[1] heinþynntan ‘whetstone-sharpened’: A hap. leg.

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húma ‘’

húma (verb)

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hvína ‘whistle’

hvína (verb): whistle, (fly) whining

[1] hvína: ‘hv(ina)’(?) U, ‘huma’ FskBˣ

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hrynj ‘resounding’

hryn- ((prefix)): roaring- < hrynjeldr (noun m.)hryn- ((prefix)): roaring- < hrynjeldr (noun m.)

[2] hrynj‑: so FskBˣ, FskAˣ, hryn‑ R, Tˣ, W, U, A

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[2] hrynjeld ‘resounding fire’: The form hrynj- is required for metrical reasons (cf. Kuhn 1983, 109).

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eld ‘fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < hrynjeldr (noun m.)eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

[2] ‑eld at: ‑eldr at U, A, eldar FskAˣ

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[2] hrynjeld ‘resounding fire’: The form hrynj- is required for metrical reasons (cf. Kuhn 1983, 109).

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at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] ‑eld at: ‑eldr at U, A, eldar FskAˣ

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br[…] ‘’

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brynju ‘of the mail-shirt’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

[2] brynju: ‘br[…]’ U

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD
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fyldar ‘’

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foldar ‘of the land’

fold (noun f.): land

[3] foldar: so W, U, A, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, fyldar R, fylda Tˣ

kennings

Vǫrðr foldar,
‘The guardian of the land, ’
   = RULER

The guardian of the land, → RULER
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vǫrðr ‘The guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

Vǫrðr foldar,
‘The guardian of the land, ’
   = RULER

The guardian of the land, → RULER
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fyrðum ‘against men’

2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

[3] fyrðum: firðum FskBˣ, forðum FskAˣ

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fjǫrn ‘amazingly’

(unknown) < fjǫrnharðr (adj.)

[4] fjǫrn‑: ‘fior[…]’ U, fjǫrr‑ FskAˣ

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[4] fjǫrnharðan ‘amazingly hard’: A hap. leg. The element fjǫrn- is related to f. pl. firnar (ModIcel. n. pl. firn) ‘something remote, exceptional’, often used as intensifying gen. pl., e.g. HSt Rst 9/2 firna mǫrg ‘very many’; see LP: firnar, fjǫrnharðr. (a) The interpretation of Kock (NN §1062), taking it in parallel with heinþynntan ‘whetstone-sharpened’ (lit. ‘-thinned’), is adopted here, as syntactically more conventional than the following solution. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; LP: fjǫrnharðr) takes fjǫrnharðan as a m. acc. sg. adj. used as an adv., ‘amazingly strongly’, in the rel. clause. (c) Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 274) notes the further possibility that it could function adjectivally with sik ‘himself’.

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harðan ‘hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < fjǫrnharðr (adj.)harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < fjǫrrharðr (adj.)

kennings

heinþynntan, fjǫrnharðan hrynjeld brynju
‘the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt ’
   = SWORD

the whetstone-sharpened, amazingly hard resounding fire of the mail-shirt → SWORD

notes

[4] fjǫrnharðan ‘amazingly hard’: A hap. leg. The element fjǫrn- is related to f. pl. firnar (ModIcel. n. pl. firn) ‘something remote, exceptional’, often used as intensifying gen. pl., e.g. HSt Rst 9/2 firna mǫrg ‘very many’; see LP: firnar, fjǫrnharðr. (a) The interpretation of Kock (NN §1062), taking it in parallel with heinþynntan ‘whetstone-sharpened’ (lit. ‘-thinned’), is adopted here, as syntactically more conventional than the following solution. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; LP: fjǫrnharðr) takes fjǫrnharðan as a m. acc. sg. adj. used as an adv., ‘amazingly strongly’, in the rel. clause. (c) Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 274) notes the further possibility that it could function adjectivally with sik ‘himself’.

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varði ‘defended’

3. verja (verb): defend

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Fsk, the stanza follows immediately after st. 8. In SnE, it is cited as one of a sequence of citations illustrating kennings for ‘swords’.

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