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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 4I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 252.

Glúmr GeirasonGráfeldardrápa
345

Austr ‘eastern’

2. austr (noun n.; °-s): the east < austrland (noun n.): eastern lands

notes

[1] austrlǫndum ‘eastern lands’: Austrlǫnd is commonly used of the Baltic regions.

Close

lǫndum ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < austrland (noun n.): eastern lands

notes

[1] austrlǫndum ‘eastern lands’: Austrlǫnd is commonly used of the Baltic regions.

Close

fezk ‘’

Close

fórsk ‘subdued’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[1] fórsk undir: so J2ˣ, 61, fezk undir Kˣ, ‘forst vndir’ F, ‘forskyndir’ J1ˣ, ‘for skendir’ Bb, ‘forst undar’ Flat

notes

[1] fórsk undir ‘subdued’: Farask normally means ‘perish, die’ (LP: fara B), but this cannot be the sense here. (a) Kock (NN §256) takes austrlǫndum as a dat. object of farask undir which he translates as lägga under sig ‘subdue’, citing the parallel hann fersk foldu grœnni undir ‘he subdues the green earth’ (GunnLeif Merl I 25VIII); this is adopted here, as also by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) reads fórsk undir slǫg, translating vovede sig under våbnene ‘risked his life against weapons’, and takes austrlǫndum as a locative dat. i de østlige lande ‘in the eastern lands’. Such a use of the dat. is possible, but restricted even in poetry (NS §117).

Close

skendir ‘’

Close

undir ‘’

undir (prep.): under

[1] fórsk undir: so J2ˣ, 61, fezk undir Kˣ, ‘forst vndir’ F, ‘forskyndir’ J1ˣ, ‘for skendir’ Bb, ‘forst undar’ Flat

notes

[1] fórsk undir ‘subdued’: Farask normally means ‘perish, die’ (LP: fara B), but this cannot be the sense here. (a) Kock (NN §256) takes austrlǫndum as a dat. object of farask undir which he translates as lägga under sig ‘subdue’, citing the parallel hann fersk foldu grœnni undir ‘he subdues the green earth’ (GunnLeif Merl I 25VIII); this is adopted here, as also by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) reads fórsk undir slǫg, translating vovede sig under våbnene ‘risked his life against weapons’, and takes austrlǫndum as a locative dat. i de østlige lande ‘in the eastern lands’. Such a use of the dat. is possible, but restricted even in poetry (NS §117).

Close

gaf ‘gave’

gefa (verb): give

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

skǫldum ‘poets’

skáld (noun n.; °-s; -): poet

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

gagn ‘success’

1. gagn (noun n.): victory

[3] gagn at: gang af Bb

Close

at ‘in’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[3] gagn at: gang af Bb

Close

gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnhǫrgr (noun m.)gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnhǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

slǫg gunnhǫrga,
‘strikers of battle-temples, ’
   = WEAPONS

battle-temples, → SHIELDS
strikers of SHIELDS → WEAPONS

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

gunn ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnhǫrgr (noun m.)gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnhǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

slǫg gunnhǫrga,
‘strikers of battle-temples, ’
   = WEAPONS

battle-temples, → SHIELDS
strikers of SHIELDS → WEAPONS

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

hǫrga ‘temples’

hǫrgr (noun m.; °; -ar): cairn, shrine < gunnhǫrgr (noun m.)

[4] ‑hǫrga: ‘horda’ Flat

kennings

slǫg gunnhǫrga,
‘strikers of battle-temples, ’
   = WEAPONS

battle-temples, → SHIELDS
strikers of SHIELDS → WEAPONS

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

hǫrga ‘temples’

hǫrgr (noun m.; °; -ar): cairn, shrine < gunnhǫrgr (noun m.)

[4] ‑hǫrga: ‘horda’ Flat

kennings

slǫg gunnhǫrga,
‘strikers of battle-temples, ’
   = WEAPONS

battle-temples, → SHIELDS
strikers of SHIELDS → WEAPONS

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

skug ‘’

Close

slǫg ‘strikers’

slag (noun n.; °-s; *-): weapon

[4] slǫg: lǫg J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘skug’ Bb

kennings

slǫg gunnhǫrga,
‘strikers of battle-temples, ’
   = WEAPONS

battle-temples, → SHIELDS
strikers of SHIELDS → WEAPONS

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

manigum ‘’

Close

mǫrgum ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[4] mǫrgum: ‘manegum’ J1ˣ

notes

[2, 4] gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga ‘gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS]’: Weapons were among the conventional rewards given to poets for their poetry; see, e.g., Hfr Lv 11V (Hallfr 14), celebrating the gift of a sword from Óláfr Tryggvason. The kenning is unusual. Gunnhǫrg(a) ‘battle-temples’ belongs to a pattern well attested among shield-kennings (Meissner 170-1), but slǫg ‘strikers’ is the pl. of slag n., which is itself a heiti for a weapon, so that the tvíkent kenning ‘strikers of battle-temples’ assumed here appears somewhat overdetermined. The translation here, however, follows Reichardt’s suggestion (1928, 178) that slǫg gunnhǫrga functions effectively as a kenning, exploiting the relation of slǫg with slá ‘to strike’ to mean ‘weapons which strike shields’. (b) Kock (NN §256) takes gunnhǫrga ‘shields’ as acc. pl. rather than gen. pl., and hence a joint object, with slǫg ‘swords’, of gaf ‘gave’, in an unusual use of asyndetic parataxis (i.e. omission of a conj.). This is questioned by Reichardt (1928, 178). (c) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B takes slǫg ‘weapons’ as the object of fórsk undir ‘risked his life against’ (see Note to l. 1 fórsk undir), and construes gunnhǫrga alone as a shield-kenning.

Close

skíðr ‘’

Close

Slíðr ‘scabbard’

2. slíðr (noun n.; °; -): sheath < slíðrtunga (noun f.)

[5] Slíðrtungur: skíðr tungu Bb, síðþungr Flat

kennings

snarpar slíðrtungur
‘keen scabbard-tongues ’
   = SWORDS

keen scabbard-tongues → SWORDS

notes

[5] slíðrtungur ‘scabbard-tongues [SWORDS]’: The word for scabbard is normally pl. slíðrar, and this appears in RvHbreiðm Hl 18/5III tunga slíðra ‘tongue of the scabbard [SWORD]’. The sg. slíðr seen in the present kenning itself means a ‘sliver’, two of which could be bound together to make a scabbard; use of the sg. is paralleled in Mark Lv 2/4III slíðráll ‘scabbard-eel [SWORD]’.

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tungur ‘tongues’

tunga (noun f.; °-u; -ur): tongue, language < slíðrtunga (noun f.)

[5] Slíðrtungur: skíðr tungu Bb, síðþungr Flat

kennings

snarpar slíðrtungur
‘keen scabbard-tongues ’
   = SWORDS

keen scabbard-tongues → SWORDS

notes

[5] slíðrtungur ‘scabbard-tongues [SWORDS]’: The word for scabbard is normally pl. slíðrar, and this appears in RvHbreiðm Hl 18/5III tunga slíðra ‘tongue of the scabbard [SWORD]’. The sg. slíðr seen in the present kenning itself means a ‘sliver’, two of which could be bound together to make a scabbard; use of the sg. is paralleled in Mark Lv 2/4III slíðráll ‘scabbard-eel [SWORD]’.

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syngva ‘sing’

syngja (verb): sing

[5] syngva: so F, syngja Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Bb, Flat, slyngja 61

Close

sverð ‘sword’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword < sverðleikr (noun m.): sword-play

kennings

Reginn sverðleiks
‘The god of sword-play ’
   = WARRIOR

sword-play → BATTLE
The god of of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverð ‘sword’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword < sverðleikr (noun m.): sword-play

kennings

Reginn sverðleiks
‘The god of sword-play ’
   = WARRIOR

sword-play → BATTLE
The god of of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

leiks ‘play’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play < sverðleikr (noun m.): sword-play

kennings

Reginn sverðleiks
‘The god of sword-play ’
   = WARRIOR

sword-play → BATTLE
The god of of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

leiks ‘play’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play < sverðleikr (noun m.): sword-play

kennings

Reginn sverðleiks
‘The god of sword-play ’
   = WARRIOR

sword-play → BATTLE
The god of of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

reginn ‘The god of’

reginn (noun m.): reginn

kennings

Reginn sverðleiks
‘The god of sword-play ’
   = WARRIOR

sword-play → BATTLE
The god of of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[6] reginn ‘the god’: Reginn appears as the base-word of a warrior-kenning here and occasionally elsewhere, though its identity is uncertain. It seems to be a m. sg. counterpart to n. pl. regin ‘gods’, but association with the dwarf-name Reginn (see Note to Hhárf Snædr 1/7) is also possible. See further LP: reginn (where Finnur Jónsson suggests bevæger ‘mover’), Meissner 264 and Note to Þjóð Haustl 12/6III.

Close

ferðir ‘troops’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[6] ferðir: firðir J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ferðar 61, Bb, Flat

Close

sendi ‘sent’

senda (verb): send

Close

gramr ‘the prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] at: af Bb

Close

grundu ‘the ground’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

[7] grundu: grunni Bb

Close

goll ‘of gold’

gull (noun n.): gold < gullvǫrpuðr (noun m.)gull (noun n.): gold < gullvǫrpuðr (noun m.)

[8] goll‑: gunn‑ J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

gollvarpaða*
‘of gold-throwers ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

gold-throwers → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] gollvarpaða* ‘of gold-throwers [GENEROUS MEN]’: (a) This edn tentatively follows Konráð Gíslason (1866b, 190-4) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; LP: gollvǫrpuðr) in interpreting gollvǫrpuðr as a kenning for a generous man, ‘one who throws, distributes gold’ (cf. Meissner 323), and construing it, with emendation of ‑varpaðar to gen. pl. ‑varpaða, as part of the phrase ferðir gollvarpaða ‘troops of gold-distributors’. The ‑ar in the mss could perhaps have arisen by anticipation of the following snarpar. (b) Kock (NN §257) disputes this interpretation on the grounds that a victorious king would be described as a generous ‘gold-distributor’, but hardly his victims, and avoids emendation by interpreting gollvarpaðar as a f. acc. pl. adj., lit. ‘gold-thrown’, describing the ferðir ‘troops’ to whom gold is distributed. This solution is adopted in ÍF 26 (where snarpar ‘keen’ is also taken to modify ferðir). However, emendation seems preferable since the concept of ‘throwing’, i.e. distributing gold is so firmly associated with the kenning type of the generous man, while it is doubtful whether a term for ‘thrown’ could mean ‘endowed with’ or ‘having received’ in a cpd adj.

Close

varpaða* ‘throwers’

-vǫrpuðr (noun m.): -thrower < gullvǫrpuðr (noun m.)-vǫrpuðr (noun m.): -thrower < gunnvǫrpuðr (noun m.)

[8] ‑varpaða*: ‑varpaðar all

kennings

gollvarpaða*
‘of gold-throwers ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

gold-throwers → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[8] gollvarpaða* ‘of gold-throwers [GENEROUS MEN]’: (a) This edn tentatively follows Konráð Gíslason (1866b, 190-4) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; LP: gollvǫrpuðr) in interpreting gollvǫrpuðr as a kenning for a generous man, ‘one who throws, distributes gold’ (cf. Meissner 323), and construing it, with emendation of ‑varpaðar to gen. pl. ‑varpaða, as part of the phrase ferðir gollvarpaða ‘troops of gold-distributors’. The ‑ar in the mss could perhaps have arisen by anticipation of the following snarpar. (b) Kock (NN §257) disputes this interpretation on the grounds that a victorious king would be described as a generous ‘gold-distributor’, but hardly his victims, and avoids emendation by interpreting gollvarpaðar as a f. acc. pl. adj., lit. ‘gold-thrown’, describing the ferðir ‘troops’ to whom gold is distributed. This solution is adopted in ÍF 26 (where snarpar ‘keen’ is also taken to modify ferðir). However, emendation seems preferable since the concept of ‘throwing’, i.e. distributing gold is so firmly associated with the kenning type of the generous man, while it is doubtful whether a term for ‘thrown’ could mean ‘endowed with’ or ‘having received’ in a cpd adj.

Close

snarpar ‘keen’

snarpr (adj.): sharp, keen

kennings

snarpar slíðrtungur
‘keen scabbard-tongues ’
   = SWORDS

keen scabbard-tongues → SWORDS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The Eiríkssynir (or Gunnhildarsynir) have left Orkney for the court of Haraldr Gormsson, king of Denmark, who fosters the young Haraldr gráfeldr. Some of the Eiríkssynir undertake raids in the Baltic.

The reference to Gráf 4 in the Note to Anon Líkn 16/7VII is to the stanza now numbered 5 below. — Despite a shared reference to the Baltic region, there is a poor fit between the stanza and its prose context, since its focus on an individual contrasts with the account in the prose of the Eiríkssynir as a group. Moreover, that individual is clearly a king (allvaldr ‘mighty ruler’, l. 2), whereas Haraldr, according to Hkr, is a young prince at the time, not even the eldest of the brothers (since his brother Gamli is still alive), and under the patronage of the Danish king. This discrepancy could be explained by the role of the stanza within a drápa composed retrospectively about Haraldr once he has achieved kingly status, but the stanza does not identify him specifically.

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