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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 9VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 9’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 81-2.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
8910

Gerðak ‘acted’

1. gera (verb): do, make

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

opt ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

orðum ‘words’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

eljun ‘energy’

eljun (noun f.; °eljunar): energy < eljunsterkr (adj.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

sterkr ‘strong’

sterkr (adj.): strong < eljunsterkr (adj.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

sem ‘as’

sem (conj.): as, which

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

verkum ‘in deeds’

verk (noun n.; °-s; -): deed

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

hreggs ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

hreggs ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

hreggs ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

bjart ‘of the bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright < bjartlogi (noun m.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

bjart ‘of the bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright < bjartlogi (noun m.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

loga ‘flame’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame < bjartlogi (noun m.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

loga ‘flame’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame < bjartlogi (noun m.)

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

hyggju ‘thought’

1. hyggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): thought, mind

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

hróts ‘of the roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

hróts ‘of the roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

hróts ‘of the roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

í ‘’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

gǫgn ‘against’

2. gegn (prep.): against

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

þér ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[4] þér: ‘[...]’ B, þ(ér)(?) 399a‑bˣ

notes

[1-4] gerðak opt í gǫgn þér í orðum, sem verkum ok hyggju ‘I often acted against you in words, as in deeds and thought’: Confession of sins in thought, word and deed is an article of the Confiteor: Confiteor Deo omnipotenti … quia peccavi nimis cogitatione, verbo et opera, mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa ‘I confess to almighty God … that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault’ (Lefebure 1924, 7). Gamli’s re-ordering of the articles of confession, which is required by the alliterative demands of his st., informs the subject-matter of the three following sts: in st. 10, he confesses to swearing oaths, a sin ‘in word’, st. 11 concerns his sins ‘in deed’, and st. 12 his sinful thoughts, which rendered him technically unfit to take part in the Eucharist.

Close

dróttinn ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

eljunsterkr dróttinn bjartloga hróts hreggs.
‘energy-strong lord of the bright flame of the roof of the storm; ’
   = God

the roof of the storm; → SKY/HEAVEN
the bright flame of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
energy-strong lord of the SUN → God
Close

Þræll ‘servant’

þræll (noun m.; °þrǽls, dat. þrǽli/þrǽl; þrǽlar): slave, servant

notes

[5] þræll þinn ‘your servant’: The figure of the Christian as God’s servant or slave has its origin in Rom. VI.22 nunc vero liberati a peccato servi autem facti Deo habetis fructum vestrum in sanctificationem finem vero vitam aeternam ‘but now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, you have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end life everlasting’. It occurs several times in ON-Icel. Christian poetry. By far the most famous use is in the so-called ‘death-song’ of Kolbeinn Tumason (d. 1208), the first st. of which ends with the couplet ek em þrællinn þinn, | þú’st dróttinn minn ‘I am your servant, you are my master’ (Kolb Lv 8/7-8IV). In Geisl 61/8, S. Óláfr is referred to as goðs þræll ‘God’s servant’, while men are called þrælar konungs fróns ‘servants of the king of the land’ in Líkn 33/1-2. Gamli repeats this concept in 10/3 and 58/8.

Close

þinn ‘your’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

notes

[5] þræll þinn ‘your servant’: The figure of the Christian as God’s servant or slave has its origin in Rom. VI.22 nunc vero liberati a peccato servi autem facti Deo habetis fructum vestrum in sanctificationem finem vero vitam aeternam ‘but now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, you have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end life everlasting’. It occurs several times in ON-Icel. Christian poetry. By far the most famous use is in the so-called ‘death-song’ of Kolbeinn Tumason (d. 1208), the first st. of which ends with the couplet ek em þrællinn þinn, | þú’st dróttinn minn ‘I am your servant, you are my master’ (Kolb Lv 8/7-8IV). In Geisl 61/8, S. Óláfr is referred to as goðs þræll ‘God’s servant’, while men are called þrælar konungs fróns ‘servants of the king of the land’ in Líkn 33/1-2. Gamli repeats this concept in 10/3 and 58/8.

Close

allan ‘total’

allr (adj.): all

Close

líf ‘life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life < lífgjafi (noun m.): life-giver

[6] lífgjafi: lífgjafa B

kennings

Lífgjafi manna,
‘lifegiver of men, ’
   = God

lifegiver of men, → God
Close

gjafi ‘giver’

gjafi (noun m.): giver < lífgjafi (noun m.): life-giver

[6] lífgjafi: lífgjafa B

kennings

Lífgjafi manna,
‘lifegiver of men, ’
   = God

lifegiver of men, → God
Close

manna ‘of men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

kennings

Lífgjafi manna,
‘lifegiver of men, ’
   = God

lifegiver of men, → God
Close

ófs ‘of an excessively’

ófs (adv.): excessively

[7] ófs: oss B

notes

[7] ófs ‘excessively’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note in 444ˣ transcript and 1844 edn) suggested emendation to ófs, adverbial gen., which has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

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grǫndugrar ‘sinful’

grǫndugr (adj.): [sinful]

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ást ‘love’

ást (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): love < ástsnauðr (adj.)

[8] ástsnauðr: ‘asts[...]udr’ B, ‘astsnạudr’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘ast s[...](a)udr’(?) BRydberg, ‘ast s(n)audr’ BFJ

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snauðr ‘bereft’

snauðr (adj.): bereft, poor < ástsnauðr (adj.)

[8] ástsnauðr: ‘asts[...]udr’ B, ‘astsnạudr’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘ast s[...](a)udr’(?) BRydberg, ‘ast s(n)audr’ BFJ

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hratat ‘stumbled’

hrata (verb): [stumbled]

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dauða ‘death’

1. dauðr (noun m.; °-s): death

[8] dauða: ‘da[...]’ B, ‘dau(da)’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘da(uda)’ BRydberg, ‘da(u)da’ BFJ

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