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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 64VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 64’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 130-1.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
636465

Létum ‘We [I] caused’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

Close

hróðr ‘the praise-poem’

hróðr (noun m.): encomium, praise

Close

s ‘which’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[1] þanns: þann B

Close

Harmsól ‘Harmsól’

harmsól (noun f.): harmsól

notes

[2] Harmsól: Lit. ‘sorrow-sun’. The title of the poem draws together many of its central themes. Harmsól may be taken as a kenning for Christ, whose harmr ‘pain, injury’ is the subject of the poem’s central meditation, and who is apostrophised throughout the poem in kennings referring to his mastery of the weather and his lordship over the heavenly halls of the sun. At another level, the poem itself, as a public act of penance and a meditation on the grace of God, has acted as a ‘sun’, dissipating the clouds of the poet’s own harmr ‘sorrow’, his grief and shame at his own sinfulness. See further Paasche 1914a, 116-18.

Close

fetil ‘of strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

fetil ‘of strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

fetil ‘of strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

kjóla ‘ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

kjóla ‘ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

kjóla ‘ships’

kjóll (noun m.): ship < fetilkjǫlr (noun m.)

[2] fetilkjóla: ‘fe[...]l kiosa’ B, ‘fe(ti)lkiosa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fæ[...](i)l kiosa’(?) BRydberg, ‘fe (ti)l kiosa’(?) BFJ

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hug ‘strong’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < hugprúðr (adj.): proud

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

prúða ‘minded’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < hugprúðr (adj.): proud

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

herðendr ‘hardeners’

1. herðandi (noun m.): strengthener

kennings

hugprúða herðendr hríðar fetilkjóla.
‘strong-minded hardeners of the storm of strap-ships. May ’
   = WARRIORS

strap-ships. May → SHIELDS
the storm of SHIELDS → BATTLE
strong-minded hardeners of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hverr ‘each’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN
Close

heyrir ‘hears’

2. heyra (verb): hear

Close

heim ‘the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < heimspennir (noun m.)

kennings

heimspenni
‘the world-clasper ’
   = God

the world-clasper → God
Close

spenni ‘clasper’

spennir (noun m.): clasper < heimspennir (noun m.)

kennings

heimspenni
‘the world-clasper ’
   = God

the world-clasper → God
Close

œski ‘craving’

óska (verb): desire < œskiþrór (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7] œski-Þrór ‘craving-Þrór’: That is, each man who craves wave-suns, i.e. gold. Þrór is listed as a heiti for Óðinn in Gylf (SnE 1982, 22). Although it occurs rather infrequently in man-kennings, (LP: Þrór), it is interesting to compare the warrior-kenning Þrós þingveljandi ‘decider of Þrór’s assembly’ in Pl 49/3-4.

Close

Þrór ‘Þrór’

þrór (noun m.): thriver, Þrór < œskiþrór (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[7] œski-Þrór ‘craving-Þrór’: That is, each man who craves wave-suns, i.e. gold. Þrór is listed as a heiti for Óðinn in Gylf (SnE 1982, 22). Although it occurs rather infrequently in man-kennings, (LP: Þrór), it is interesting to compare the warrior-kenning Þrós þingveljandi ‘decider of Þrór’s assembly’ in Pl 49/3-4.

Close

eirar ‘compassion’

eir (noun f.): mercy

Close

unn ‘of wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave < unnrǫðull (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN
Close

unn ‘of wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave < unnrǫðull (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN
Close

rǫðla ‘suns’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body < unnrǫðull (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN
Close

rǫðla ‘suns’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body < unnrǫðull (noun m.)

kennings

Hverr œski-Þrór unnrǫðla,
‘each craving-Þrór of wave-suns ’
   = MAN

wave-suns → GOLD
each craving-Þrór of the GOLD → MAN
Close

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