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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 43VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 43’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 111-12.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
424344

Ræfrs ‘of the roof’

2. ræfr (noun n.): roof

kennings

gram ræfrs landa;
‘the prince of the roof of lands; ’
   = God

the roof of lands; → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-4] gram ræfrs landa ‘prince of the roof of lands [SKY/HEAVEN = God]’: Cf. Leið 10/1-2, where God is characterised as vǫrðr vallræfrs ‘guardian of the plain-roof’.

Close

Ræfrs ‘of the roof’

2. ræfr (noun n.): roof

kennings

gram ræfrs landa;
‘the prince of the roof of lands; ’
   = God

the roof of lands; → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-4] gram ræfrs landa ‘prince of the roof of lands [SKY/HEAVEN = God]’: Cf. Leið 10/1-2, where God is characterised as vǫrðr vallræfrs ‘guardian of the plain-roof’.

Close

lung ‘Ship’

lung (noun n.): longship < lungbeitandi (noun m.)

[2] lungbeitǫndum: ‘lunndbeitundum’ B

kennings

Lungbeitǫndum
‘Ship-steerers ’
   = MEN

Ship-steerers → MEN
Close

beitǫndum ‘steerers’

2. beita (verb; °-tt-): beat, tack < lungbeitandi (noun m.)

[2] lungbeitǫndum: ‘lunndbeitundum’ B

kennings

Lungbeitǫndum
‘Ship-steerers ’
   = MEN

Ship-steerers → MEN
Close

raun ‘experience’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience

[3] raun: ‘rum’ B

Close

runnar ‘bushes’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

kennings

runnar randéls
‘bushes of the shield-storm ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-storm → BATTLE
bushes of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randél (noun n.)

kennings

runnar randéls
‘bushes of the shield-storm ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-storm → BATTLE
bushes of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randél (noun n.)

kennings

runnar randéls
‘bushes of the shield-storm ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-storm → BATTLE
bushes of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

éls ‘storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < randél (noun n.)

kennings

runnar randéls
‘bushes of the shield-storm ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-storm → BATTLE
bushes of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

éls ‘storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < randél (noun n.)

kennings

runnar randéls
‘bushes of the shield-storm ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-storm → BATTLE
bushes of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

gram ‘the prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

gram ræfrs landa;
‘the prince of the roof of lands; ’
   = God

the roof of lands; → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-4] gram ræfrs landa ‘prince of the roof of lands [SKY/HEAVEN = God]’: Cf. Leið 10/1-2, where God is characterised as vǫrðr vallræfrs ‘guardian of the plain-roof’.

Close

landa ‘of lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

gram ræfrs landa;
‘the prince of the roof of lands; ’
   = God

the roof of lands; → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-4] gram ræfrs landa ‘prince of the roof of lands [SKY/HEAVEN = God]’: Cf. Leið 10/1-2, where God is characterised as vǫrðr vallræfrs ‘guardian of the plain-roof’.

Close

landa ‘of lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

gram ræfrs landa;
‘the prince of the roof of lands; ’
   = God

the roof of lands; → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-4] gram ræfrs landa ‘prince of the roof of lands [SKY/HEAVEN = God]’: Cf. Leið 10/1-2, where God is characterised as vǫrðr vallræfrs ‘guardian of the plain-roof’.

Close

hring ‘of the sword’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringstyrr (noun m.)

[5] hringstyrjar: ‘hringstyr[...] a’ B, ‘hringstyri a’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hring ‘of the sword’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringstyrr (noun m.)

[5] hringstyrjar: ‘hringstyr[...] a’ B, ‘hringstyri a’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

styrjar ‘din’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle < hringstyrr (noun m.)

[5] hringstyrjar: ‘hringstyr[...] a’ B, ‘hringstyri a’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

styrjar ‘din’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle < hringstyrr (noun m.)

[5] hringstyrjar: ‘hringstyr[...] a’ B, ‘hringstyri a’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hverjum ‘to each’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hag ‘state’

1. hagr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): situation, condition

notes

[5] hag ‘state’: This word, which is difficult to translate adequately, occurs several times in Has, always with reference to the effects of sin on a man’s spiritual condition. Its resonances appear to be at once specific (as in 49/2) and general (12/6-8), and it seems to refer to situations palpable (49/2) and psychological (23/7, 43/6). In his confession of sin in thought, word and deed (st. 12), Gamli admits that margir hagir mínir sýnask mér meginljótir ‘many of my actions seem to me extremely ugly’ (12/6-8). The penitent thief fears that, unless Christ listens to his pleas for mercy, ek á til hættan hag ‘I am in a rather too perilous situation’ (23/7). Similarly, in st. 49, King David is said to have decided to ask God for mercy eftir þungan hag ‘after his grevious (lit. ‘heavy’) sinfulness’ (49/2), hagr presumably being used to allude to David’s adultery with Bathsheba and the death of her husband, Uriah the Hittite (see Note to st. 48).

Close

yngra ‘to young’

ungr (adj.): young

Close

þoll ‘fir-tree’

þollr (noun m.): fir-tree

kennings

hverjum þoll hringstyrjar,
‘to each fir-tree of the sword-din, ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-din, → BATTLE
to each fir-tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

vel ‘thoroughly’

vel (adv.): well, very

Close

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