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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 39VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 39’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 106-7.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
383940

flærðar ‘with falsehood’

flærð (noun f.): falsehood, deceit

notes

[1] auknir flærðar ‘swollen with falsehood’: Kock (NN §21) suggests that flærð means ‘folly’, and that, in a religious text, it should be interpreted as ‘godlessness’ or ‘recklessness’.

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auknir ‘swollen’

1. auka (verb; °eykr; jók, jóku/juku): (str. intrans.) increase

notes

[1] auknir flærðar ‘swollen with falsehood’: Kock (NN §21) suggests that flærð means ‘folly’, and that, in a religious text, it should be interpreted as ‘godlessness’ or ‘recklessness’.

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fleygjendr ‘Flingers’

fleygjandi (noun m.): flinger

kennings

Fleygjendr leygjar þrimu,
‘Flingers of the flame of battle, ’
   = WARRIORS

the flame of battle, → SWORD
Flingers of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[2] fleygjendr ‘flingers’: Skj B normalises B’s ‘fleygendr’ to fleygjendr, nomen agentis from fleygja (weak class 1) ‘to make fly’. All subsequent eds have adopted this form.

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þrimu ‘of battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

Fleygjendr leygjar þrimu,
‘Flingers of the flame of battle, ’
   = WARRIORS

the flame of battle, → SWORD
Flingers of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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þrimu ‘of battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din

kennings

Fleygjendr leygjar þrimu,
‘Flingers of the flame of battle, ’
   = WARRIORS

the flame of battle, → SWORD
Flingers of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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leygjar ‘of the flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame

kennings

Fleygjendr leygjar þrimu,
‘Flingers of the flame of battle, ’
   = WARRIORS

the flame of battle, → SWORD
Flingers of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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leygjar ‘of the flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame

kennings

Fleygjendr leygjar þrimu,
‘Flingers of the flame of battle, ’
   = WARRIORS

the flame of battle, → SWORD
Flingers of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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liggr ‘lie’

liggja (verb): lie

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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elds ‘of fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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á ‘upon’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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ǫldum ‘men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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íma ‘embers’

íma (noun f.): ember, battle, dusky one

notes

[3-4] þar liggr íma elds á ǫldum ‘there lie embers of fire upon men’: The problem here concerns both the case and meaning of ms. ‘ima’. There is a complex of semantically related nouns in ON: ím n. ‘dust, ashes’, íma f. ‘battle, she-wolf’ (‘dusky one’), and ímr m. ‘wolf’ (‘dusky’) (see LP: íma, ímr). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (cf. LP (1860): íma) and Kempff retain the ms. reading íma, taking this as the nom. form of íma f. in the sense ‘embers’, for which there is no other attested example in either poetry or prose. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to ímu, and arranges þar liggr frost með bríma á ímu elds ǫldum ‘there lies frost with flame on the men of the fire of battle [SWORD > WARRIORS]’. He takes íma f. to mean ‘battle’, a sense attested in several poems, whose eldr is a sword (see also LP: íma, ǫld). Kock accepts this emendation without comment.

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bríma ‘flame’

brími (noun m.): fire

[4] bríma: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]ma’ B

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Mǫrg ‘Many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[5] Mǫrgs: mǫrg eru B

notes

[5] mǫrgs: B’s reading eru must be emended both from a grammatical point of view (ógn is f. nom. sg.) and from a metrical point of view (in a type E l.).

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s ‘is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] Mǫrgs: mǫrg eru B

notes

[5] mǫrgs: B’s reading eru must be emended both from a grammatical point of view (ógn is f. nom. sg.) and from a metrical point of view (in a type E l.).

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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segja ‘to describe’

segja (verb): say, tell

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