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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 37VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 37’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 105-6.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
363738

Gumar ‘Men’

gumi (noun m.; °-a; gumar/gumnar): man

[1] Gumar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]umar’ B

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gæti ‘the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

gæti himinljóma
‘the guardian of the light of heaven ’
   = God

the light of heaven → SUN
the guardian of the SUN → God
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allt ‘everything’

allr (adj.): all

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kjǫr ‘the decision’

Kjǫr (noun n.): [decision]

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himin ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky < himinljómi (noun m.)

kennings

gæti himinljóma
‘the guardian of the light of heaven ’
   = God

the light of heaven → SUN
the guardian of the SUN → God
Close

himin ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky < himinljómi (noun m.)

kennings

gæti himinljóma
‘the guardian of the light of heaven ’
   = God

the light of heaven → SUN
the guardian of the SUN → God
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ljóma ‘of the light’

ljómi (noun m.; °-a): light, beam < himinljómi (noun m.)

kennings

gæti himinljóma
‘the guardian of the light of heaven ’
   = God

the light of heaven → SUN
the guardian of the SUN → God
Close

ljóma ‘of the light’

ljómi (noun m.; °-a): light, beam < himinljómi (noun m.)

kennings

gæti himinljóma
‘the guardian of the light of heaven ’
   = God

the light of heaven → SUN
the guardian of the SUN → God
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Oss ‘our’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[5] Oss: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘o[...]’ B

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aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

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unaðs ‘bliss’

unað (noun n.; °-s): happiness < unaðsgnóttr (noun m.)

notes

[6] unaðsgnótt fira dróttins: An almost identical l. occurs at 27/8, which reads harms gnótt fira dróttinn; also similar is the last l. of the poem unaðsgnótt ok frið dróttinn (65/8).

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gnótt ‘abundant’

gnóttr (noun m.): abundance < unaðsgnóttr (noun m.)

notes

[6] unaðsgnótt fira dróttins: An almost identical l. occurs at 27/8, which reads harms gnótt fira dróttinn; also similar is the last l. of the poem unaðsgnótt ok frið dróttinn (65/8).

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fira ‘of the men’

firar (noun m.): men

kennings

fira dróttins
‘of the men of the Lord ’
   = CHRISTIAN PEOPLE

the men of the Lord → CHRISTIAN PEOPLE

notes

[6] unaðsgnótt fira dróttins: An almost identical l. occurs at 27/8, which reads harms gnótt fira dróttinn; also similar is the last l. of the poem unaðsgnótt ok frið dróttinn (65/8).

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dróttins ‘of the Lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

fira dróttins
‘of the men of the Lord ’
   = CHRISTIAN PEOPLE

the men of the Lord → CHRISTIAN PEOPLE

notes

[6] unaðsgnótt fira dróttins: An almost identical l. occurs at 27/8, which reads harms gnótt fira dróttinn; also similar is the last l. of the poem unaðsgnótt ok frið dróttinn (65/8).

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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ǫr ‘arrow’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow < ǫrsløngvir (noun m.)

kennings

engum ǫrsløngvi
‘no arrow-slinger ’
   = MAN

no arrow-slinger → MAN
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sløngvi ‘slinger’

sløngvir (noun m.): slinger < ǫrsløngvir (noun m.)

kennings

engum ǫrsløngvi
‘no arrow-slinger ’
   = MAN

no arrow-slinger → MAN
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engum ‘no’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

kennings

engum ǫrsløngvi
‘no arrow-slinger ’
   = MAN

no arrow-slinger → MAN
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ganga ‘pass’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[8] ganga: ‘[...]’ B, ‘g̣ạṇg̣ạ’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...](a)’(?) BRydberg, (gang)a(?) BFJ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes gumar líta þá gæti himinljóma í hæstum guðdómi heilags Krists; alt gengr drengjum við kør, which he translates mændene vil da se himmelglansens vogter i den hellige Kristus’ höjeste guddom; alt vil gå mændene efter ønske ‘men will then see the guardian of the light of heaven in the highest Godhead of the holy Christ; everything will go for men according to their wishes’. Despite the objections of Kock (NN §2926) and Black (1971, 235) that this is theologically untenable, Finnur may have meant only that good Christians will have their wish, to live in bliss. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252) follows Sveinbjörn Egilsson and Kempff in arranging alt gengr drengjum heilags Krists við kjǫr ‘everything goes for the men of holy Christ according to choice’, suggesting that both drengjum heilags Krists ‘the men of holy Christ’ and dróttins fira ‘men of the lord’ refer to the chosen, that is, the saved. This arrangement is adopted by both Kock and Black. However, a more powerful argument is for kjǫr ‘choice, decision’ to be understood with heilags Krists to refer to Christ’s role in deciding whether the souls of the dead are saved and allowed to enter heaven or damned, as described in st. 38. This interpretation has the support of John V.22 and the Apostles’ Creed, which state that Christ is appointed to judge mankind: neque enim Pater iudicat quemquam sed iudicium omne dedit Filio ‘for neither doth the Father judge any man, but hath given all judgement to the Son’ (John V.22); Credo in Jesum Christum ... inde venturus (est) judicare vivos et mortuos ‘I believe in Jesus Christ ... thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead’ (Apostles’ Creed). — [5-8]: This helmingr is very similar to Leið 35/5-8, which also concerns the Second Coming.

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