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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 33VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 33’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 101-2.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
323334

Hǫrð ‘the harsh’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[1] Hǫrð: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘H[...]’ B

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munat ‘It will not’

munu (verb): will, must

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hjalm ‘of the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmstýrandi (noun m.)

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.

Close

hjalm ‘of the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmstýrandi (noun m.)

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.

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stýranda ‘ruler’

stýrandi (noun m.; °-a; -endr): ruler, steerer < hjalmstýrandi (noun m.)

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

dýra ‘precious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

dýra ‘precious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.

Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda,
‘helmet-ruler of the sun’
   = God

the precious of the helmet of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.

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synðgum ‘for sinful’

synðugr (adj.): sinful

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sýnask ‘will appear’

sýna (verb): show, seem

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með ‘as well as’

með (prep.): with

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Paasche (1914a, 146) notes that the concept of the appearance of Christ’s wounds at Judgement can be traced to biblical passages concerned with the Last Days. Zech. XII.10 describes the sorrow of the Jews at this time: et aspicient ad me quem confixerunt et plangent eum planctu quasi super unigenitum ‘and they shall look upon me, whom they have pierced: and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for an only son’. This v. is recalled at the opening of Rev. I.7: ecce venit cum nubibus et videbit eum omnis oculus et qui eum pupugerunt et plangent se super eum omnes tribus terrae etiam ‘behold, he cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see him, and they also that pierced him. And all the tribes of the earth shall bewail themselves because of him’.

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