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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 31VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 31’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 99-100.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
303132

mun ‘will’

munu (verb): will, must

[1] mun: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘m[...]’ B

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ǫðru ‘a second’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

[1] ǫðru sinni: ‘o᷎dr[...]nne’ B, ‘o᷎drụ ṣịnne’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎dr[...] (s)[...](nn)æ’(?) BRydberg, ‘o᷎d(ru si)nne’(?) BFJ

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sinni ‘time’

2. sinni (noun n.; °-s;): time, occasion; company, following

[1] ǫðru sinni: ‘o᷎dr[...]nne’ B, ‘o᷎drụ ṣịnne’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎dr[...] (s)[...](nn)æ’(?) BRydberg, ‘o᷎d(ru si)nne’(?) BFJ

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ǫðlingr ‘ruler’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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hingat ‘here’

hingat (adv.): (to) here

[2] hingat: ‘h[...]ngat’ B, ‘h(in)gat’(?) 399a‑bˣ

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mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

[3] mána: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]ana’ B

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

[3] mána: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]ana’ B

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘of the tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

[3] tjalds: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘t[...]lldz’ B

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘of the tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

[3] tjalds: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘t[...]lldz’ B

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] enn mildi ‘the gentle’: As Black (1971, 219) notes, it is interesting that Christ is described as mildr ‘gentle’ here, ‘a reiteration of the mercy of God at the moments which men fear most ... is not entirely what one might expect’. Given that Gamli repeatedly emphasizes the possibility of Christ’s mercy in even the most hopeless cases (the penitent thief, Mary Magdalene, Peter, David, Gamli himself), we should perhaps not be surprised at this.

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mildi ‘gentle’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

kennings

inn mildi ǫðlingr tjalds mána
‘the gentle ruler of the tent of the moon ’
   = God

the tent of the moon → SKY/HEAVEN
the gentle ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] enn mildi ‘the gentle’: As Black (1971, 219) notes, it is interesting that Christ is described as mildr ‘gentle’ here, ‘a reiteration of the mercy of God at the moments which men fear most ... is not entirely what one might expect’. Given that Gamli repeatedly emphasizes the possibility of Christ’s mercy in even the most hopeless cases (the penitent thief, Mary Magdalene, Peter, David, Gamli himself), we should perhaps not be surprised at this.

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meðr ‘men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

notes

[4] meðr ‘men’: An early form of the nom. pl. of maðr ‘man’, which was later assimilated to mennr and eventually to menn. CVC: maðr lists several occurrences in poetry, all in texts dating from the C11th and C12th. On meðr and the assimilation of þr/ðr to nnr, which Noreen dates to the late Viking period, see ANG §§261, 277b.

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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

[4] til dóms at kveðja: ‘[...]m[...]ia’ B, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘til doms a[...]dia’ BRydberg, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ BFJ

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dóms ‘judgement’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)

[4] til dóms at kveðja: ‘[...]m[...]ia’ B, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘til doms a[...]dia’ BRydberg, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ BFJ

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at ‘to’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[4] til dóms at kveðja: ‘[...]m[...]ia’ B, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘til doms a[...]dia’ BRydberg, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ BFJ

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kveðja ‘call’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[4] til dóms at kveðja: ‘[...]m[...]ia’ B, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘til doms a[...]dia’ BRydberg, ‘til dóms [...]ia’ BFJ

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Geisar ‘will rage’

geis (noun n.): [will rage]

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œsisk ‘will surge’

œsa (verb): surge

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ǫlna ‘of the mackerel’

ǫln (noun f.; °alnar; alnar/alnir): mackerel

kennings

fold ǫlna
‘the land of the mackerel ’
   = SEA

the land of the mackerel → SEA

notes

[6] fold ǫlna ‘land of the mackerel [SEA]’: The identical kenning occurs in HSt Rst 27/7I.

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fold ‘the land’

fold (noun f.): land

kennings

fold ǫlna
‘the land of the mackerel ’
   = SEA

the land of the mackerel → SEA

notes

[6] fold ǫlna ‘land of the mackerel [SEA]’: The identical kenning occurs in HSt Rst 27/7I.

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vaknar ‘will awaken’

vakna (verb): wake, awake

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fyrða ‘of men’

2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

[7] fyrða: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]da’ B

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The turmoil associated with the Second Coming and Last Judgement is a recurrent theme in medieval eschatological literature and art. It is difficult to find precise parallels with Gamli’s account. The locus classicus is Rev. XX, where the account includes mention of punishing fire and of the resurrection of the dead (Rev. XX.12, 15). The account of the ‘Day of the Lord’ in the Second Epistle of Peter (2 Pet III.10-11) stresses that destruction will be by fire, not by water, as in the days of Noah. The raising of the dead is also a tenet of Pauline eschatology (1 Cor. XV.52). Turville-Petre (1953, 163) and Lange (1958a, 146) note that there are some parallels between this st. and the account of Ragnarǫk in Vsp 54. — [1-4]: B fol. 13r, l.1 is dark and badly worn (partly as a result of earlier restoration attempts). It has therefore been necessary to rely heavily on previous transcriptions of the ms., most notably that of 399a-bˣ, to reconstruct the text. Where earlier eds are uncertain of the reading (notably with kveðja in l. 4), rhyme and alliteration have been used as guides for confirmation of their reconstructions.

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