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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 30VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 30’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 99.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
293031

Ítr ‘the glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

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lofar ‘praise’

lof (noun n.; °-s; -): praise, leave, permission

notes

[1] lofar ‘praise’: Lit. ‘praises’. The 444ˣ copyist suggests this normalisation from B’s ‘lofuar’, which has been adopted by all eds. Note that the verb is sg. but the subject pl. (cf. NS §70).

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allr ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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salar ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

kennings

vǫrð* salar fjalla
‘the guardian of the hall of the mountains ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains → SKY/HEAVEN
the guardian of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘(of the) hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: In addition to Leið 1/2 (see previous Note), the identical heaven-kenning occurs in a lv. in Gunnl (GunnlI Lv 8/2V [Gunnl 13]) and in a couplet from Hallv Knútdr 8/2III.

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salar ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

kennings

vǫrð* salar fjalla
‘the guardian of the hall of the mountains ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains → SKY/HEAVEN
the guardian of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘(of the) hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: In addition to Leið 1/2 (see previous Note), the identical heaven-kenning occurs in a lv. in Gunnl (GunnlI Lv 8/2V [Gunnl 13]) and in a couplet from Hallv Knútdr 8/2III.

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fjalla ‘of the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

kennings

vǫrð* salar fjalla
‘the guardian of the hall of the mountains ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains → SKY/HEAVEN
the guardian of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘(of the) hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: In addition to Leið 1/2 (see previous Note), the identical heaven-kenning occurs in a lv. in Gunnl (GunnlI Lv 8/2V [Gunnl 13]) and in a couplet from Hallv Knútdr 8/2III.

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fjalla ‘of the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

kennings

vǫrð* salar fjalla
‘the guardian of the hall of the mountains ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains → SKY/HEAVEN
the guardian of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘(of the) hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: In addition to Leið 1/2 (see previous Note), the identical heaven-kenning occurs in a lv. in Gunnl (GunnlI Lv 8/2V [Gunnl 13]) and in a couplet from Hallv Knútdr 8/2III.

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vǫrð* ‘the guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

[4] vǫrð*: ‘vo᷎rðr’ B

kennings

vǫrð* salar fjalla
‘the guardian of the hall of the mountains ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains → SKY/HEAVEN
the guardian of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[4] vǫrð* ‘warden, guardian’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (n. to 444ˣ transcription and 1844, 23) corrects to vǫrð, which has been accepted by all eds.

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Ern ‘The powerful’

ern (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): powerful

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr ok hlýr[…]’ B

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God

notes

[5-8] ern skóp … konungr betri: The first l. of the stef is written out. Repetition of the stef (from st. 20) is indicated by a marginal obelos.

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skóp ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr ok hlýr[…]’ B

notes

[5-8] ern skóp … konungr betri: The first l. of the stef is written out. Repetition of the stef (from st. 20) is indicated by a marginal obelos.

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hauðr ‘earth’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr ok hlýr[…]’ B

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heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
Close

valdr ‘ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
Close

sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

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kyn ‘the kinsfolk’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
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beima ‘of men’

beimi (noun m.; °; -ar): man

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
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ǫrr ‘the generous’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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ǫllu ‘than everything’

allr (adj.): all

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él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5-8] ern skóp … konungr betri: The first l. of the stef is written out. Repetition of the stef (from st. 20) is indicated by a marginal obelos.

Close

betri ‘better’

betri (adj. comp.; °superl. beztr/baztr; pos. „ góðr adj.): better, best

notes

[5-8] ern skóp … konungr betri: The first l. of the stef is written out. Repetition of the stef (from st. 20) is indicated by a marginal obelos.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Kock (NN §2926) follows Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252) in construing allr herr salar fjalla lofar vǫrð sveitar engla ‘all the host of the hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS] praises the guardian of the company of angels [= God]’. This edn follows Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) in taking vǫrðr salar fjalla, which is reminiscent of harri salar fjalla ‘lord of the hall of the mountains’ in Leið 1/2, to be the God-kenning here. The sentiment of this helmingr recalls that of the first stef in Leið, and it seems reasonable to assume some influence here, though it is impossible to say which of the two poems is the senior.

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