Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 28VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 28’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 97.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól

Hilmir, reist, ins hæsta
hríðtjalds, ór grǫf síðan,
flýtileygs, á frægjum,
friðsamr, degi þriðja,
ok rá*ðvísa, ræsir
regnhallar, vannt fegna,
áðr þás yðvarr dauði,
aldyggr, fira hryggði.

{Friðsamr hilmir {flýtileygs {ins hæsta hríðtjalds}}}, reist síðan ór grǫf á frægjum þriðja degi, ok, {aldyggr ræsir {regnhallar}}, vannt fegna rá*ðvísa fira, þás yðvarr dauði hryggði áðr.

{Peaceful prince {of the swift fire {of the highest storm-tent}}} [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)], you rose then from the grave on the famous third day, and, {altogether honourable king {of the rain-hall}} [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)], you made glad the counsel-wise people whom your death had saddened previously.

Mss: B(12v), 399a-bˣ

Readings: [1] reist (‘reis þu’): so 399a‑bˣ, ‘r[...]s þ[...]’ B, ‘ræis þ(u)’(?) BRydberg, ‘reis þ[...]’ BFJ    [5] rá*ðvísa: ‘raud uisa’ B

Editions: Skj AI, 566, Skj BI, 555, Skald I, 269; Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1844, 22, Kempff 1867, 8-9, Rydberg 1907, 25, Jón Helgason 1935-6, 257, Black 1971, 210; Attwood 1996a, 228.

Notes: [1-4] hilmir flýtileygs ens hæsta hríðtjalds ‘prince of the swift fire of the highest storm-tent [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: Cf. valdr blásinna tjalda hreggs ‘king of the windswept tents of the storm’ in 57/6-7. — [1] reist ‘you rose’: This edn follows Kock and Black in adopting Jón Helgason’s suggestion (1935-6, 257), anticipated by Sveinbjörn Egilsson in a marginal note to the 444ˣ transcript (which is less certain about B’s text than was 399a-bˣ) that the verb should be in the 2nd pers. sg. here, as in the second helmingr (vant l. 6). The ms. reading suggests that the 2nd pers. is intended and Gamli’s habit elsewhere is to maintain a continuity of address throughout a st., as, e.g. in the preceding st., where all three verbs are in the 2nd pers. sg.


  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. Attwood, Katrina. 1996a. ‘The Poems of MS AM 757a 4to: An Edition and Contextual Study’. Ph.D. thesis. University of Leeds.
  4. Black, Elizabeth L. 1971. ‘Harmsól: an edition’. B. Litt. thesis. University of Oxford.
  5. Rydberg, Hugo, ed. 1907. ‘Die geistlichen Drápur und Dróttkvættfragmente des Cod. AM 757 4to.’. Ph.D. thesis. University of Lund. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. Jón Helgason. 1935-6. ‘Til skjaldedigtningen’. APS 10, 250-64.
  7. Kempff, Hjalmar, ed. 1867. Kaniken Gamles ‘Harmsól’ (Sol i Sorgen): isländskt andligt qväde från medeltiden med öfversättning och förklaringar. Uppsala: Edquist & Berglund.
  8. Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1844. Fjøgur gømul kvæði. Boðsrit til að hlusta á þá opinberu yfirheyrslu í Bessastaða Skóla þann 22-29 mai 1844. Viðeyar Klaustri: prentuð af Helga Helgasyni, á kostnað Bessastaða Skóla. Bessastaðir: Helgi Helgason.

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