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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 25VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 25’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 94-5.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
242526

gefr ‘gives’

gefa (verb): give

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hæsta ‘the highest’

hœgri (adj. comp.): higher, highest

[1] hæsta: ‘[...]’ B, ‘ḥẹṣta’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘h(æs)ta’(?) BRydberg, ‘h(e᷎sta)’(?) BFJ

notes

[1] hæsta ‘highest’: There is a hole in the ms. at this point, and nothing is legible, except for a possible ascender to the left of the hole. 399a-bˣ reads ‘hesta’, but indicates uncertainty about the first three letters. Rydberg was certain of the <h> and the final <ta>, and reconstructed to ‘hæsta’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj A) was sure only of the <h>, but accepted Rydberg’s reconstruction, which has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

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hring ‘the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

hring-Þrótt,
‘the ring-Þróttr ’
   = MAN

the ring-Þróttr → MAN

notes

[2] hring-Þrótt ‘ring-Þróttr’: See Note to 11/4. The allusion to a repentant sinner as a ‘ring-god’ may be intended to remind one of the description of the penitent thief as tínir bauga ‘gatherer of rings’ (23/6) and auðbrjótr ‘destroyer of riches’ (24/2), and may tie Gamli’s more general moralisation into the meditation on the Crucifixion scene.

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Þrótt ‘Þróttr’

þróttr (noun m.): strength, might, valour < hringþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

hring-Þrótt,
‘the ring-Þróttr ’
   = MAN

the ring-Þróttr → MAN

notes

[2] hring-Þrótt ‘ring-Þróttr’: See Note to 11/4. The allusion to a repentant sinner as a ‘ring-god’ may be intended to remind one of the description of the penitent thief as tínir bauga ‘gatherer of rings’ (23/6) and auðbrjótr ‘destroyer of riches’ (24/2), and may tie Gamli’s more general moralisation into the meditation on the Crucifixion scene.

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saðr ‘The true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

[3] saðr: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘sad[...]’ B

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s ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] þeims (‘þeim er’): so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]m er’ B

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iðrask ‘repents’

iðra (verb): repent

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Ern ‘The powerful’

ern (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): powerful

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr […] hlyrni’ B

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
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skóp ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr […] hlyrni’ B

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hauðr ‘heaven’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

[5-8] abbrev. as ‘Ern skop haudr […] hlyrni’ B

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heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
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valdr ‘ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
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sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

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kyn ‘the kinsfolk’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
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beima ‘of men’

beimi (noun m.; °; -ar): man

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
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ǫrr ‘the generous’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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ǫllu ‘than everything’

allr (adj.): all

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él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes saðr dróttinn gefr hring-Þrótt, þeims íðrask, hæsta hollostu með sér, lausn synða sinna ok ynði ‘the true Lord gives the man, the one who repents, the highest favour with him, freedom from his sins and delight’. The prose arrangement adopted here, which accords with those of Kock (NN §1193) and Black (1971, 203), makes for a smoother w.o. — [5-8]: The first l. of the stef is written out. Although the scribe of B usually indicates repetition of a stef (in this case, from st. 20) by means of a marginal obelos, the mark is omitted here.

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