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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 21VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 21’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 21-2.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
202122

barðr ‘beaten’

2. berja (verb; °barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn): fight

notes

[1] barðr ok bundinn ‘beaten and bound’: This theme is also present in Líkn’s account of the Crucifixion (15/7-8): píndr var hann berr ok bundinn barðr ‘bare he was tortured and beaten bound’.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[1] barðr ok bundinn ‘beaten and bound’: This theme is also present in Líkn’s account of the Crucifixion (15/7-8): píndr var hann berr ok bundinn barðr ‘bare he was tortured and beaten bound’.

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bundinn ‘bound’

binda (verb; °bindr; batt/bant(cf. [$332$]), bundu; bundinn): bind, tie

notes

[1] barðr ok bundinn ‘beaten and bound’: This theme is also present in Líkn’s account of the Crucifixion (15/7-8): píndr var hann berr ok bundinn barðr ‘bare he was tortured and beaten bound’.

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buðlungr ‘king’

buðlungr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, prince

[2] buðlungr: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]udlu[...]’ B

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
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hlýrnis ‘of the sky’

hlýrnir (noun m.): heaven, heavenly body

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
Close

hlýrnis ‘of the sky’

hlýrnir (noun m.): heaven, heavenly body

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
Close

elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
Close

elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
Close

hár ‘high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hár buðlungr elds hlýrnis.
‘high king of the fire of the sky. ’
   = God

the fire of the sky. → SUN
high king of the SUN → God
Close

ǫldu ‘of the wave’

alda (noun f.; °; *-ur): wave

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
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ǫldu ‘of the wave’

alda (noun f.; °; *-ur): wave

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

ǫldu ‘of the wave’

alda (noun f.; °; *-ur): wave

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

runna ‘of the trees’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[5] runna: ‘ru[...]a’ B, ‘runa’ 399a‑bˣ, runna BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

runna ‘of the trees’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[5] runna: ‘ru[...]a’ B, ‘runa’ 399a‑bˣ, runna BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

angr ‘sin-’

1. angr (noun m.; °angrs, dat. angri/angr): grief < angrstríðir (noun m.)

[6] angr‑: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘an[...]’ B

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

stríðir ‘fighter’

stríðir (noun m.): opponent, fighter < angrstríðir (noun m.)

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

síðan ‘afterwards’

síðan (adv.): later, then

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viggs ‘of the steed’

viggr (noun m.): horse

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

viggs ‘of the steed’

viggr (noun m.): horse

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

viggs ‘of the steed’

viggr (noun m.): horse

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

meðal ‘between’

meðal (prep.): between

notes

[7] meðal vándra seggja ‘between wicked men’: The homiletic nature of the language is confirmed by comparison with the phraseology of HómÍsl’s Passio Domini sermon: Cristr lét sér sóma at deyia meþal vandra manna ‘Christ made it fitting for himself to die between wicked men’ (HómÍsl 1872, 68).

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vándra ‘wicked’

vándr (adj.): wicked

notes

[7] meðal vándra seggja ‘between wicked men’: The homiletic nature of the language is confirmed by comparison with the phraseology of HómÍsl’s Passio Domini sermon: Cristr lét sér sóma at deyia meþal vandra manna ‘Christ made it fitting for himself to die between wicked men’ (HómÍsl 1872, 68).

Close

seggja ‘men’

seggr (noun m.; °; -ir): man

notes

[7] meðal vándra seggja ‘between wicked men’: The homiletic nature of the language is confirmed by comparison with the phraseology of HómÍsl’s Passio Domini sermon: Cristr lét sér sóma at deyia meþal vandra manna ‘Christ made it fitting for himself to die between wicked men’ (HómÍsl 1872, 68).

Close

vegligr ‘magnificent’

vegligr (adj.): magnificent

kennings

vegligr angrstríðir runna viggs ǫldu.
‘magnificent sin-fighter of the trees of the steed of the wave.’
   = God

the steed of the wave. → SHIP
the trees of the SHIP → SEAFARERS
magnificent sin-fighter of SEAFARERS → God
Close

negla ‘to be nailed’

negla (verb): nail

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

This st. represents the thematic centre of the poem, and introduces a haunting evocation of, and meditation on, the Crucifixion (sts 21-7), which focusses on Christ’s merciful response to the penitent thief. Gamli’s mastery and manipulation of the skaldic genre is clear as he simplifies both his diction and his w.o. from this point to exploit the full pathos of the scene in a stark narrative reproduced almost verbatim from the account of the Passion in the Gospel of Luke. As Fidjestøl (1993, 223) points out, Has is very carefully structured, and st. 21 is the beginning of the 25-st. stefjabálkr, which carries the central meditation, in contrast to the surrounding sermon material.

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