skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Gamlkan Has 20VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 20’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 90-1.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
192021

Skjǫldungi ‘prince’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] skjǫldungi tjalds skýja ‘for the prince of the tent of the clouds [SKY/HEAVEN = God (= Christ)]’: Black (1971, 191) compares Isa. XL.22, where God is described as qui extendit velut nihilum caelos et expandit eos sicut tabernaculum ad inhabitandum ‘he that stretcheth out the heavens as nothing, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in’. The identical heaven-kenning occurs in 65/5-6, where God is described as vǫrðr skýtjalds ‘warden of the cloud-tent’.

Close

róm ‘We are [I am]’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[1] róm ‘we are [I am]’: The short form, rather than B’s erum, must be adopted here, otherwise the l. is unmetrical. Cf. ANG §532.3 Anm. 1.

Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] skjǫldungi tjalds skýja ‘for the prince of the tent of the clouds [SKY/HEAVEN = God (= Christ)]’: Black (1971, 191) compares Isa. XL.22, where God is described as qui extendit velut nihilum caelos et expandit eos sicut tabernaculum ad inhabitandum ‘he that stretcheth out the heavens as nothing, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in’. The identical heaven-kenning occurs in 65/5-6, where God is described as vǫrðr skýtjalds ‘warden of the cloud-tent’.

Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] skjǫldungi tjalds skýja ‘for the prince of the tent of the clouds [SKY/HEAVEN = God (= Christ)]’: Black (1971, 191) compares Isa. XL.22, where God is described as qui extendit velut nihilum caelos et expandit eos sicut tabernaculum ad inhabitandum ‘he that stretcheth out the heavens as nothing, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in’. The identical heaven-kenning occurs in 65/5-6, where God is described as vǫrðr skýtjalds ‘warden of the cloud-tent’.

Close

tjalds ‘of the tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] skjǫldungi tjalds skýja ‘for the prince of the tent of the clouds [SKY/HEAVEN = God (= Christ)]’: Black (1971, 191) compares Isa. XL.22, where God is described as qui extendit velut nihilum caelos et expandit eos sicut tabernaculum ad inhabitandum ‘he that stretcheth out the heavens as nothing, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in’. The identical heaven-kenning occurs in 65/5-6, where God is described as vǫrðr skýtjalds ‘warden of the cloud-tent’.

Close

tjalds ‘of the tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] skjǫldungi tjalds skýja ‘for the prince of the tent of the clouds [SKY/HEAVEN = God (= Christ)]’: Black (1971, 191) compares Isa. XL.22, where God is described as qui extendit velut nihilum caelos et expandit eos sicut tabernaculum ad inhabitandum ‘he that stretcheth out the heavens as nothing, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in’. The identical heaven-kenning occurs in 65/5-6, where God is described as vǫrðr skýtjalds ‘warden of the cloud-tent’.

Close

greitt ‘a free-flowing’

greiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. greiðastr/greiztr): smooth, easy

notes

[3] greitt ‘free-flowing’: May be taken either adjectivally (as in the translation here) or adverbially.

Close

mætti ‘as may’

mega (verb): may, might

[3] mætti: ‘[...]tti’ B, ‘(m)ętt(e)’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]æ’)tt[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘(m)e᷎tt(e)’(?) BFJ

Close

grand ‘for the sin’

grand (noun n.): injury < grandlauss (adj.)

[4] grand‑: ‘[...]nd’ B, ‘(gra)nd‑’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘(g)[...]nd‑’(?) BRydberg, (gra)nd‑ BFJ

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

lausum ‘less’

lauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without < grandlauss (adj.)

kennings

grandlausum skjǫldungi tjalds skýja
‘for the sinless prince of the tent of the clouds ’
   = God

the tent of the clouds → SKY/HEAVEN
for the sinless prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

Ern ‘The powerful’

ern (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): powerful

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
Close

skóp ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

Close

heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
Close

valdr ‘ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

[6] valdr: so all others, ‘ual[...]r’ B

kennings

Ern valdr heims
‘The powerful ruler of the world ’
   = God

The powerful ruler of the world → God
Close

sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

Close

kyn ‘the kinsfolk’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
Close

beima ‘of men’

beimi (noun m.; °; -ar): man

kennings

kyn beima;
‘the kinsfolk of men; ’
   = MANKIND

the kinsfolk of men; → MANKIND
Close

ǫrr ‘the generous’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ǫllu ‘than all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

setrs ‘seat’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < élsetr (noun n.): storm-seat

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

ǫrr konungr élsetrs
‘the generous king of the storm-seat ’
   = God

the storm-seat → SKY/HEAVEN
the generous king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

betri ‘better’

betri (adj. comp.; °superl. beztr/baztr; pos. „ góðr adj.): better, best

[8] betri: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]ri’ B

notes

[8] betri ‘better’: Jón Helgason (1935-6, 257) supposed that the two comparatives dýrri and betri cause difficulties of a stylistic kind. He therefore emended betri to letri, from letr ‘letter’, interpreting the final couplet as meaning that God is more holy (dýrri) than any description, but this seems not a good ground for emendation.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: That this is the refrain (stef) is indicated by an obelos in the left-hand margin (fol. 12v, l. 31). The first couplet of the refrain is similar in both sense and sound-structure to the opening of the second Leið refrain (25/5-6), which reads: Gramr skóp hauðr ok himna | hreggranns sem kyn seggja ‘the king of the gale-house made land and skies, as well as the race of men’. Lines 7-8 recall the final couplet of the first refrain in Leið (13/7-8): Einn er siklingr sunnu | setrs hvívetna betri ‘the king of the seat of the sun is alone better than everything else’. The sense of the couplets is identical, and both feature a cpd Christ-kenning including a heaven-kenning with the base-word setr. Both also exploit the setrs : betri rhyme.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.