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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 12VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 12’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 84-5.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
111213

Bergðak ‘I tasted’

bergja (verb; °-gð-): taste

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saurgu ‘with an unclean’

saurgr (adj.): unclean, filthy

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byrjar ‘breeze’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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byrjar ‘breeze’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hlunns ‘of the launching-roller’

hlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hlunns ‘of the launching-roller’

hlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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hreins ‘of the fair [lit. pure]’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[3] hreins: ‘hre[...]ns’ B, ‘hreịns’ 399a‑bˣ, hreins BFJ

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hreins ‘of the fair [lit. pure]’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

[3] hreins: ‘hre[...]ns’ B, ‘hreịns’ 399a‑bˣ, hreins BFJ

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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holdi ‘body’

hold (noun n.; °-s; -): flesh

[3] holdi: ‘h[...]’ B, ‘ḥọḷḷḍẹ’ 399a‑bˣ

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hug ‘merci’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < huggóðr (adj.): merciful

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

góðr ‘ful’

góðr (adj.): good < huggóðr (adj.): merciful

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

jǫfurr ‘prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

huggóðr jǫfurr hlunns hreins byrjar.
‘merciful prince of the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. ’
   = God

the launching-roller of the fair [lit. pure] breeze. → SKY/HEAVEN
merciful prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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Þó ‘Nevertheless’

þó (adv.): though

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sék ‘I look’

2. sjá (verb): see

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þengill ‘king’

þengill (noun m.): prince, ruler

kennings

þrifskjótr þengill skýja;
‘prosperity-swift king of the clouds; ’
   = God

prosperity-swift king of the clouds; → God
Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

þrifskjótr þengill skýja;
‘prosperity-swift king of the clouds; ’
   = God

prosperity-swift king of the clouds; → God
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þrif ‘prosperity’

þrif (noun n.; °; -): prosperity

[6] þrifskjótr: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘þrif skí[...]tr’ B

kennings

þrifskjótr þengill skýja;
‘prosperity-swift king of the clouds; ’
   = God

prosperity-swift king of the clouds; → God
Close

skjótr ‘swift’

2. skjótr (adj.): quick(ly)

[6] þrifskjótr: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘þrif skí[...]tr’ B

kennings

þrifskjótr þengill skýja;
‘prosperity-swift king of the clouds; ’
   = God

prosperity-swift king of the clouds; → God
Close

margir ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

notes

[8] margir – þar til bjargar ‘many there for help’: Cf. Leið 20/8 margri þjóð til bjargar.

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

notes

[8] margir – þar til bjargar ‘many there for help’: Cf. Leið 20/8 margri þjóð til bjargar.

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til ‘for’

til (prep.): to

notes

[8] margir – þar til bjargar ‘many there for help’: Cf. Leið 20/8 margri þjóð til bjargar.

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bjargar ‘help’

bjǫrg (noun f.; °bjargar; bjargir): help, deliverance

notes

[8] margir – þar til bjargar ‘many there for help’: Cf. Leið 20/8 margri þjóð til bjargar.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Gamli’s confession is presumably a response to S. Paul’s warning in 1 Cor. XI. 26-9: quotienscumque enim manducabitis panem hunc et calicem bibetis mortem Domini adnuntiatis donec veniat itaque quicumque manducaverit panem vel biberit calicem Domini indigne reus erit corporis et sanguinis Domini probet autem se ipsum homo et sic de pane illo edat et de calice bibat qui enim manducat et bibit indigne iudicium sibi manducat et bibit non diudicans corpus ‘for as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink the chalice, you shall shew the death of the Lord, until he come. Therefore whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord. But let a man prove himself: and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of the chalice. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh judgement to himself not discerning the body [of the Lord]’. The same sentiment is found elsewhere in ON-Icel. religious literature. A Christmas day sermon in HómÍsl (HómÍsl 1872, 215), for example, warns its hearers that sa es criz licama etr. Oc hans blóþ drekcr ómaclega. Hann etr sér afallz dóm oc dreckr ‘whoever eats Christ’s body and drinks his blood unworthily eats and drinks a severe judgement for himself’. The Magister of Eluc (Eluc 1989, 83) is even more explicit in his condemnation of unworthy communicants: en þa er þeir hondla holld drottens vars syndvgvm hondom ok vhreinvm hvat gera þeir þa nema crossfesta kristr ‘and when they touch our Lord’s flesh with sinful and unclean hands, what are they doing then except crucifying Christ?’

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