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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 11VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 11’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 82-4.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
101112

Ókynnin ‘the sins’

ókynni (noun n.): [sins]

Close

annan ‘another’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

Close

vinna ‘was committing’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

Close

víga* ‘of battles’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[3] víga*: vígar B

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

víga* ‘of battles’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[3] víga*: vígar B

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

víga* ‘of battles’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[3] víga*: vígar B

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ljóss ‘of the flame’

ljós (noun n.; °ljóss; -): light

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ljóss ‘of the flame’

ljós (noun n.; °ljóss; -): light

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

ljóss ‘of the flame’

ljós (noun n.; °ljóss; -): light

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

vissak ‘to be guilty of’

1. vita (verb): know

Close

veðr ‘of the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] veðr-Þrótt ‘storm-Þróttr [WARRIOR]’: Þróttr is established as an Óðinn-heiti in skaldic verse and occurs frequently in man- and battle-kennings (cf. LP: Þróttr). See also 25/2 (hring-Þróttr ‘ring-Þróttr’) and Leið 37/6 (seima-Þróttr ‘Þróttr of riches’), where the rhyme, as here, is with drótt-.

Close

veðr ‘of the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] veðr-Þrótt ‘storm-Þróttr [WARRIOR]’: Þróttr is established as an Óðinn-heiti in skaldic verse and occurs frequently in man- and battle-kennings (cf. LP: Þróttr). See also 25/2 (hring-Þróttr ‘ring-Þróttr’) and Leið 37/6 (seima-Þróttr ‘Þróttr of riches’), where the rhyme, as here, is with drótt-.

Close

Þrótt ‘Þróttr’

2. Þróttr (noun m.): Þróttr < veðrþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

annan ljóss víga* veðr-Þrótt
‘storm-Þróttr of the flame of battles’
   = WARRIOR

the flame of battles → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
another Þróttr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] veðr-Þrótt ‘storm-Þróttr [WARRIOR]’: Þróttr is established as an Óðinn-heiti in skaldic verse and occurs frequently in man- and battle-kennings (cf. LP: Þróttr). See also 25/2 (hring-Þróttr ‘ring-Þróttr’) and Leið 37/6 (seima-Þróttr ‘Þróttr of riches’), where the rhyme, as here, is with drótt-.

Close

und ‘of the wound’

1. und (noun f.; °; -ir): wound < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

und ‘of the wound’

1. und (noun f.; °; -ir): wound < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

und ‘of the wound’

1. und (noun f.; °; -ir): wound < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gjalfrs ‘surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gjalfrs ‘surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

gjalfrs ‘surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves < undgjalfr (noun n.)

[6] undgjalfrs: so all others, ‘vnn[...]gialfrs’ B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

sjǫlfum ‘self’

sjalfr (adj.): self

Close

grá ‘of the grey’

grár (adj.; °gráan/grán): grey < grálinnr (noun m.)

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

grá ‘of the grey’

grár (adj.; °gráan/grán): grey < grálinnr (noun m.)

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < grálinnr (noun m.)

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < grálinnr (noun m.)

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

geymi ‘protecting’

geymir (noun m.): guardian, keeper < geymirunnr (noun m.): keeping trees

[7] geymirunna: geymirunnum B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

runna ‘bushes’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree < geymirunnr (noun m.): keeping trees

[7] geymirunna: geymirunnum B

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

glaðr ‘glad’

2. glaðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): cheerful, glad

[8] glaðr þás: ‘gla[...]’ B, ‘gla(dr þa)’(?) 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘gla(d)[...]’(?) BRydberg

Close

þás ‘when’

2. þá (adv.): then

[8] glaðr þás: ‘gla[...]’ B, ‘gla(dr þa)’(?) 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘gla(d)[...]’(?) BRydberg

Close

aðra ‘other’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

aðra geymirunna grálinns undgjalfrs.
‘other protecting bushes of the grey serpent of the wound-surge.’
   = WARRIORS

the wound-surge. → BLOOD
the grey serpent of the BLOOD → SWORD
other protecting bushes of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes this helmingr as follows: Gatk optsinnis vinna ókynni á mik þar, es vissak annan vigrar veðr-Þrótt, dróttinn ljóss, and translates ofte gjorde jeg mig skyldig i unoder, hvor jeg vidste, at andre mænd gjorde det, lysets herre ‘I was often guilty of bad habits where I knew that other men were doing it, lord of light’. Kock (NN §2110) objects to Finnur’s interpretation as ‘modern’, substituting his own prose arrangement: Gatk optsinnis vinna þar ókynni, er ek vissa annan víga ljóss veðr-Þrótt á mik, dróttinn which Black (1971, 167) paraphrases ‘I have often behaved ignobly when I knew that another man was treating me in that manner, Lord’. Whether consciously or not, this largely accords with Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s understanding in 444ˣ, which reads: Ek gat optsinnis vinna ókynnin, þar er ek vissa annan Þrótt á mik, dróttinn ljóss veðrvegar ‘I have often behaved badly when I knew another man (lit. Þrótt = Óðinn) to be doing so towards me, Lord of the bright weather-way [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’. This interpretation (and the emendation to vegar in l. 3) is adopted by Kempff (1867, 28). In the context of Gamli’s confession of former sins, Kock’s suggestion that Gamli is confessing to behaving badly seems more plausible than Finnur’s, in which he tries to shift the blame for his misdeeds. As Jón Helgason (1935-6, 195) explains, there are some difficulties with Kock’s interpretation. The main problem is that the construction vinna á e-n is otherwise unattested: Fritzner: vinna gives examples of the phrase only with dat. or gen. objects. Furthermore, as Jón says, it is difficult to justify the separation of the acc. annan in l. 1 from the immediately adjacent verb geta. Jón’s suggestion, which is adopted by Black (1971, 166) and here, depends on the assumption that the phrasal verb vita á sik ‘to know oneself, to be guilty of’ with objects meaning ‘fault’, ‘blame’ or, as here, ‘sin’ existed in C12th usage. This use is common in MIcel, and Fritzner: vita has several examples of the similar phrase at vita e-t eptir e-m with this meaning in medieval religious prose, though Fritzner lists no examples of vita in conjunction with either á or sik. Even so, Jón’s interpretation makes for a much simpler and smoother prose arrangement than does either Kock’s or Finnur’s, and fits better with the tone of both the second helmingr and Gamli’s self-accusatory confession in sts 7-16.

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