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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Lv 5I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 221.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonLausavísur
456

Veitk ‘I know’

1. vita (verb): know

[1] Veitk (‘Veit ec’): sá ek Flat

Close

inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

inn bitri benvǫndr
‘the biting wound-wand ’
   = SWORD

the biting wound-wand → SWORD
Close

bitri ‘biting’

bitr (adj.; °bitran; superl. bitrastr): sharp, biting

[1] bitri: so all others, added in a later hand

kennings

inn bitri benvǫndr
‘the biting wound-wand ’
   = SWORD

the biting wound-wand → SWORD
Close

hyggjung ‘’

Close

byggving ‘inhabiter’

bygging (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; gen. -a): [inhabiter]

[2] byggving: ‘hyggiung’ FskBˣ

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2, 3] byggving skíðs bulka ‘inhabiter of the ski of cargo [SHIP > SEAFARER]’: This, the warrior killed by the king, is identified as Eyvindr skreyja in Fsk and Hkr (see Context; followed in ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). To judge from the stanza itself, however, the reference could be to Álfr (see Note to Lv 3/4) through his nickname askmaðr ‘Shipman, viking’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; see also Finnur Jónsson 1907, 284 and Lind 1920-1, 6 on the nickname, and Jesch 2001a, 135 on askr ‘ship’). There may have been competing accounts of the deaths of Eyvindr and Álfr, and in crediting the killing of Álfr to Þórálfr Skólmsson (an Icelander in whose honour ÞSjár Þórdr was composed), the prose sources may include some elements of early tradition.

Close

meðal ‘the middling’

meðal (prep.): between < meðaldyggr (adj.)meðal (prep.): between < (non-lexical) (unclassified)

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] meðaldyggvan ‘middling-valiant’: An ironic understatement of the deceased warrior’s allegedly abysmal level of prowess. ÍF 26 translates meðaltrúan ‘middling-loyal’.

Close

dyggvang ‘’

Close

dyggvan ‘valiant’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy < meðaldyggr (adj.)

[2] ‑dyggvan: ‘‑dyggvang’ FskAˣ

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] meðaldyggvan ‘middling-valiant’: An ironic understatement of the deceased warrior’s allegedly abysmal level of prowess. ÍF 26 translates meðaltrúan ‘middling-loyal’.

Close

balka ‘’

Close

bulka ‘of cargo’

bulki (noun m.; °-a): [cargo]

[3] bulka: ‘buska’ J1ˣ, balka Flat

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2, 3] byggving skíðs bulka ‘inhabiter of the ski of cargo [SHIP > SEAFARER]’: This, the warrior killed by the king, is identified as Eyvindr skreyja in Fsk and Hkr (see Context; followed in ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). To judge from the stanza itself, however, the reference could be to Álfr (see Note to Lv 3/4) through his nickname askmaðr ‘Shipman, viking’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; see also Finnur Jónsson 1907, 284 and Lind 1920-1, 6 on the nickname, and Jesch 2001a, 135 on askr ‘ship’). There may have been competing accounts of the deaths of Eyvindr and Álfr, and in crediting the killing of Álfr to Þórálfr Skólmsson (an Icelander in whose honour ÞSjár Þórdr was composed), the prose sources may include some elements of early tradition.

Close

bulka ‘of cargo’

bulki (noun m.; °-a): [cargo]

[3] bulka: ‘buska’ J1ˣ, balka Flat

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2, 3] byggving skíðs bulka ‘inhabiter of the ski of cargo [SHIP > SEAFARER]’: This, the warrior killed by the king, is identified as Eyvindr skreyja in Fsk and Hkr (see Context; followed in ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). To judge from the stanza itself, however, the reference could be to Álfr (see Note to Lv 3/4) through his nickname askmaðr ‘Shipman, viking’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; see also Finnur Jónsson 1907, 284 and Lind 1920-1, 6 on the nickname, and Jesch 2001a, 135 on askr ‘ship’). There may have been competing accounts of the deaths of Eyvindr and Álfr, and in crediting the killing of Álfr to Þórálfr Skólmsson (an Icelander in whose honour ÞSjár Þórdr was composed), the prose sources may include some elements of early tradition.

Close

skíðs ‘of the ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

[3] skíðs: skíð F

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2, 3] byggving skíðs bulka ‘inhabiter of the ski of cargo [SHIP > SEAFARER]’: This, the warrior killed by the king, is identified as Eyvindr skreyja in Fsk and Hkr (see Context; followed in ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). To judge from the stanza itself, however, the reference could be to Álfr (see Note to Lv 3/4) through his nickname askmaðr ‘Shipman, viking’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; see also Finnur Jónsson 1907, 284 and Lind 1920-1, 6 on the nickname, and Jesch 2001a, 135 on askr ‘ship’). There may have been competing accounts of the deaths of Eyvindr and Álfr, and in crediting the killing of Álfr to Þórálfr Skólmsson (an Icelander in whose honour ÞSjár Þórdr was composed), the prose sources may include some elements of early tradition.

Close

skíðs ‘of the ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

[3] skíðs: skíð F

kennings

meðaldyggvan byggving skíðs bulka
‘the middling-valiant inhabiter of the ski of cargo ’
   = SEAFARER

the ski of cargo → SHIP
the middling-valiant inhabiter of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2, 3] byggving skíðs bulka ‘inhabiter of the ski of cargo [SHIP > SEAFARER]’: This, the warrior killed by the king, is identified as Eyvindr skreyja in Fsk and Hkr (see Context; followed in ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). To judge from the stanza itself, however, the reference could be to Álfr (see Note to Lv 3/4) through his nickname askmaðr ‘Shipman, viking’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; see also Finnur Jónsson 1907, 284 and Lind 1920-1, 6 on the nickname, and Jesch 2001a, 135 on askr ‘ship’). There may have been competing accounts of the deaths of Eyvindr and Álfr, and in crediting the killing of Álfr to Þórálfr Skólmsson (an Icelander in whose honour ÞSjár Þórdr was composed), the prose sources may include some elements of early tradition.

Close

ben ‘wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < benvǫndr (noun m.)

[4] ben‑: bein J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

inn bitri benvǫndr
‘the biting wound-wand ’
   = SWORD

the biting wound-wand → SWORD
Close

ófallum ‘’

ófall (noun n.)

Close

Ófælinn ‘unflinching’

ófælinn (adj.): [unflinching]

[5] Ófælinn: ‘vfallum’ J1ˣ, ófallinn J2ˣ, ‘ofeilinn’ Flat

Close

Ála ‘of Áli’

Áli (noun m.): Áli

[5] Ála: Óla FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

Ála ‘of Áli’

Áli (noun m.): Áli

[5] Ála: Óla FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

Ála ‘of Áli’

Áli (noun m.): Áli

[5] Ála: Óla FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < éldraugr (noun m.)él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < él (noun n.): storm

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < éldraugr (noun m.)él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < él (noun n.): storm

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

draugr ‘The log’

1. draugr (noun m.; °; -ar): tree < éldraugr (noun m.)

[6] ‑draugr: draugar 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189). — [6] -draugr ‘the log’: The juxtaposition and rhyme of draug- with hauga ‘burial-mounds’ in l. 6 may evoke the homonym draugr ‘ghost, undead’ (LP: 1. draugr; cf. Note to ÞHjalt Lv 1/5). Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. Skj B; LP: gǫltr) emends draugr to draugs, and hence makes the warrior-kenning Ála galtar éldraugs (discussed in Note to ll. 5, 6, 7) dependent on hauga skarar ‘burial-mounds of hair [HEADS]’, but the emendation is unnecessary since the two kennings in ll. 5-8 can be taken in apposition.

Close

draugr ‘The log’

1. draugr (noun m.; °; -ar): tree < éldraugr (noun m.)

[6] ‑draugr: draugar 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189). — [6] -draugr ‘the log’: The juxtaposition and rhyme of draug- with hauga ‘burial-mounds’ in l. 6 may evoke the homonym draugr ‘ghost, undead’ (LP: 1. draugr; cf. Note to ÞHjalt Lv 1/5). Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; cf. Skj B; LP: gǫltr) emends draugr to draugs, and hence makes the warrior-kenning Ála galtar éldraugs (discussed in Note to ll. 5, 6, 7) dependent on hauga skarar ‘burial-mounds of hair [HEADS]’, but the emendation is unnecessary since the two kennings in ll. 5-8 can be taken in apposition.

Close

skuo᷎r ‘’

Close

skarar ‘of hair’

skǫr (noun f.; °skarar; skarir): hair, planking

[6] skarar: skǫr 61, 325IX 1 a, ‘skuo᷎r’ Bb, af skǫr Flat

kennings

hauga skarar
‘the burial-mounds of hair ’
   = HEADS

the burial-mounds of hair → HEADS
Close

hauga ‘the burial-mounds’

haugr (noun m.; °-s, -i; -ar): mound, cairn

kennings

hauga skarar
‘the burial-mounds of hair ’
   = HEADS

the burial-mounds of hair → HEADS

notes

[6] hauga ‘the burial-mounds’: The pl. number implies that this stanza is a description of Hákon’s actions against the enemy in general, not his killing of an individual warrior. ON haugr can denote a natural hill or a burial-mound, but the juxtaposition with draugr (see previous Note) and the context of deadly blows suggest that burial-mounds are evoked here.

Close

goll ‘with his gold’

gull (noun n.): gold < gullhjaltaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[7] goll‑: ‘g[…]’ J1ˣ

notes

[7] gollhjǫltuðum ‘gold-hilted’: Some hilts from this period exhibit golden or silver ornamentation (Pedersen 2004, 595).

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hjǫltuðum ‘hilted’

hjaltaðr (adj./verb p.p.): [hilted] < gullhjaltaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[7] gollhjǫltuðum ‘gold-hilted’: Some hilts from this period exhibit golden or silver ornamentation (Pedersen 2004, 595).

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galtar ‘of the boar’

galti (noun m.): boar

[7] galtar: corrected from hjaltar J2ˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

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galtar ‘of the boar’

galti (noun m.): boar

[7] galtar: corrected from hjaltar J2ˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

Close

galtar ‘of the boar’

galti (noun m.): boar

[7] galtar: corrected from hjaltar J2ˣ

kennings

Ála galtar éldraugr,
‘storm-log of the boar of Áli’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the boar of Áli, → HELMET
the storm of the HELMET → BATTLE
The log of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon

notes

[5, 6, 7] Ála galtar éldraugr ‘the log of the storm of the boar of Áli <legendary king> [(lit. storm-log of the boar of Áli) HELMET > BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: This solution is based upon that of Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B), which is followed, with variations, by most eds. The ‘boar of Áli’ is understood as ‘helmet’, since Hildigǫltr or Hildisvín ‘battle-boar’ was the name of the helmet belonging to king Áli of Norway (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26, 190 n.), which later passed to Aðils of Sweden (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 58; cf. a comparable allusion to the hostilities between Aðils and Hrólfr kraki at Fýrisvellir in Eyv Lv 8.) There is an element of ofljóst here, since the battle-kenning equates to hildr ‘battle’, and together with galtar (gen. sg. of gǫltr ‘boar’) forms a counterpart to Hildigǫltr. Editors differ as to the exact analysis of the kenning (and see Note to l. 6 draugr for a further complication). The analysis above is favoured in ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991, while Finnur Jónsson and seemingly Kock (NN §2217) take él Ála ‘storm of Áli’ as the battle-kenning and the gǫltr ‘boar’ of battle as the helmet. The ofljóst works more straightforwardly on this analysis, but the structure of the inverted kenning is more problematic. Gǫltr and other words for ‘boar’ are found in other expressions for ‘helmet’, though Meissner expresses reservations about their status as kennings (Meissner 164). Boar images on helmets are attested from pre-Viking Age Sweden and from Anglo-Saxon England (see Beowulf 2008, 12, 135-7; Mitchell et al. 1998, 189).

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grandráðr ‘’

grandráðr (adj.)

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daðr ‘’

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grandaðr ‘injurer’

grandaðr (noun m.): [injurer, harmer]

[8] grandaðr: ‘grand daðr’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘grandraðr’ 61, grandað FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

grandaðr Dana,
‘injurer of the Danes, ’
   = Hákon

injurer of the Danes, → Hákon

notes

[8] grandaðr ‘injurer’: Printed in older eds as grǫnduðr, but there is no ground for alteration of the ms. spelling here, and ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 all print grandaðr. This type of agentive noun can be formed with either -aðr or -uðr, the latter with mutation of a in the root syllable to ǫ.

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Dana ‘of the Danes’

danr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): Dane

kennings

grandaðr Dana,
‘injurer of the Danes, ’
   = Hákon

injurer of the Danes, → Hákon
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brandi ‘sword’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

[8] brandi: branda F, brandr J1ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Fsk incorporates the stanza within a description of how Hákon single-handedly kills Eyvindr skreyja, having declined an offer of help from Þórálfr inn sterki ‘the Strong’ Skólmsson. Hkr and ÓT mention first that Hákon kills Eyvindr skreyja, following up on an initial attack by Þórálfr, and then that Þórálfr kills Álfr askmaðr ‘Shipman’.

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