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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hák 4I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 178.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHákonarmál
345

Hrauzk ‘threw’

1. hrjóða (verb): clear, destroy

notes

[1] hrauzk ór hervôðum ‘threw off his war-garments [ARMOUR]’: Lit. ‘threw himself out of his war-garments’. This could be a heroic gesture, though the Fsk context asserts that the day was warm. According to the F reading in st. 2/2, Hákon had already taken off his mail-shirt (see Note). Herbert (1804, 110) accordingly translates hrauzk here as ‘has cast’.

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ór ‘off’

3. ór (prep.): out of

notes

[1] hrauzk ór hervôðum ‘threw off his war-garments [ARMOUR]’: Lit. ‘threw himself out of his war-garments’. This could be a heroic gesture, though the Fsk context asserts that the day was warm. According to the F reading in st. 2/2, Hákon had already taken off his mail-shirt (see Note). Herbert (1804, 110) accordingly translates hrauzk here as ‘has cast’.

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her ‘his war’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herváð (noun f.)herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < her (adv.): here

kennings

hervôðum,
‘his war-garments, ’
   = ARMOUR

his war-garments, → ARMOUR

notes

[1] hrauzk ór hervôðum ‘threw off his war-garments [ARMOUR]’: Lit. ‘threw himself out of his war-garments’. This could be a heroic gesture, though the Fsk context asserts that the day was warm. According to the F reading in st. 2/2, Hákon had already taken off his mail-shirt (see Note). Herbert (1804, 110) accordingly translates hrauzk here as ‘has cast’.

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vôðum ‘garments’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes < herváð (noun f.)

[1] ‑vôðum: ‑fótum FskBˣ

kennings

hervôðum,
‘his war-garments, ’
   = ARMOUR

his war-garments, → ARMOUR

notes

[1] hrauzk ór hervôðum ‘threw off his war-garments [ARMOUR]’: Lit. ‘threw himself out of his war-garments’. This could be a heroic gesture, though the Fsk context asserts that the day was warm. According to the F reading in st. 2/2, Hákon had already taken off his mail-shirt (see Note). Herbert (1804, 110) accordingly translates hrauzk here as ‘has cast’.

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hratt ‘cast’

1. hrinda (verb): launch, propell

[2] hratt: rætt FskAˣ

notes

[2] hratt ‘cast’: 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of hrinda.

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vís ‘’

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vísi ‘The leader’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

[3] vísi: ‘vis’ J1ˣ(62r), vísir FskBˣ

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verðunga ‘’

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verðungir ‘’

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varðungar ‘’

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verðungar ‘of the retinue’

verðung (noun f.): troop, retinue

[3] verðungar: ‘verðunger’ J1ˣ(62r), verðunga FskBˣ, ‘varðungar’ FskAˣ

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áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[4] áðr: áðr an FskBˣ

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víks ‘’

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vígs ‘the battle’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[4] vígs: ‘viks’ FskAˣ

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tókisk ‘’

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tœki ‘beginning’

2. taka (verb): take

[4] tœki: so F(18ra), J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, 761bˣ, tókisk or tœkisk Kˣ(102r)

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Lék ‘joked’

3. leika (verb): play

[5] Lék: leik J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r)

notes

[5] lék við ‘joked with’: Leika við refers to play of any sort, but verbal sport seems likely here. 

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við ‘with’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[5] lék við ‘joked with’: Leika við refers to play of any sort, but verbal sport seems likely here. 

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ljóð ‘’

2. ljóðr (noun m.): = lýðr, people < ljóðmǫgr (noun m.)2. ljóðr (noun m.): = lýðr, people

notes

[5] ljóðmǫgu ‘his men’: Lit. ‘people-sons’.

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mangu ‘’

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mǫgu ‘his men’

mǫgr (noun m.; °; megir, acc. mǫgu): son, boy < ljóðmǫgr (noun m.)

[5] ‑mǫgu: ‘mangu’ FskBˣ, FskAˣ

notes

[5] ljóðmǫgu ‘his men’: Lit. ‘people-sons’.

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land ‘the land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

notes

[6] verja land ‘protect the land’: Wolff (1952, 104) argues that this is a pun, with the alternate meaning ‘clothe the land’ (since Hákon has cast his mail-shirt on the ground), and this is the nature of the king’s joking or playing with his men, an interpretation perhaps anticipated by Metcalfe (1880, 387).

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verja ‘to protect’

3. verja (verb): defend

[6] verja: so F(18ra), J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Tˣ, U, B, C, vera Kˣ(102r), R, 761bˣ

notes

[6] verja land ‘protect the land’: Wolff (1952, 104) argues that this is a pun, with the alternate meaning ‘clothe the land’ (since Hákon has cast his mail-shirt on the ground), and this is the nature of the king’s joking or playing with his men, an interpretation perhaps anticipated by Metcalfe (1880, 387).

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gramr ‘ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[7] gramr: so F(18ra), J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, U, gram Kˣ(102r), 761bˣ, Gylfi R, Tˣ, B, C

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glaðværi ‘cheerful’

glaðværr (adj.): [cheerful]

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stóð ‘he stood’

standa (verb): stand

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[8] und: um 761bˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, as for st. 1. In Fsk, the preceding prose remarks that the day of the battle was warm, and Hákon removed his mail-shirt and (contrary to what the stanza says) helmet and heartened his men, laughing and cheering them up with his demeanour. In SnE, ll. 5-8 are cited with other stanzas to illustrate the remark that the names of the sons of Hálfdan gamli ‘the Old’ are used in verse as heiti for noblemen, the name in this instance being Gylfi: see Readings.

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