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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hák 3I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 177.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHákonarmál
234

Háleygi ‘the Háleygir’

háleygr (noun m.): one of the Háleygir, Háleygjar

[1] Háleygi: Holmrygi J1ˣ(62r), Háleygi corrected from ‘Holmrygi’ J2ˣ(58r)

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sems ‘just as’

sems (conj.): [just as]

[2] sems: sem F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, sá er J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r)

notes

[2] sems ‘just as’: The conj. sem and relative particle es; see LP: sems. Although only found in , this is retained here since it is the reading of the main ms. and the lectio difficilior (so also Skj B).

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á Holmrygi: her kallar J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r)

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Holmrygi ‘the Hólmrygir’

holmrygr (noun m.): [Hólmrygir]

[2] á Holmrygi: her kallar J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r)

notes

[2] Holmrygi ‘the Hólmrygir’: The people of the islands off Rogaland; see Þhorn Harkv 14/1 and Note.

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jarla ‘of jarls’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

kennings

Einbani jarla
‘The sole slayer of jarls ’
   = Hákon

The sole slayer of jarls → Hákon
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ein ‘The sole’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone < einbani (noun m.)2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone < eindanr (noun m.)

kennings

Einbani jarla
‘The sole slayer of jarls ’
   = Hákon

The sole slayer of jarls → Hákon

notes

[3] einbani ‘the sole slayer’: Judging from LP: einbani, this is the only skaldic record of the word. The two eddic instances refer to Óðinn and Þórr. 

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bani ‘slayer’

bani (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death, killer < einbani (noun m.)

[3] ‑bani: ‑dani F

kennings

Einbani jarla
‘The sole slayer of jarls ’
   = Hákon

The sole slayer of jarls → Hákon

notes

[3] einbani ‘the sole slayer’: Judging from LP: einbani, this is the only skaldic record of the word. The two eddic instances refer to Óðinn and Þórr. 

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fǫrr ‘’

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fór ‘he went’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[4] fór: ‘forr’ FskBˣ

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til ‘into’

til (prep.): to

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Gótt ‘the good’

góðr (adj.): good

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hafði ‘had’

hafa (verb): have

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inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana
‘The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes ’
   = Hákon

The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes → Hákon
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gjǫfli ‘munificent’

gjǫfull (adj.; °gjǫflan; superl. gjǫflastr): munificent

[5] gjǫfli: so F, J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskAˣ, gǫfgi Kˣ(102r), FskBˣ, 761bˣ

kennings

Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana
‘The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes ’
   = Hákon

The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes → Hákon

notes

[5] gjǫfli ‘munificent’: As the agreement of the J transcripts and F, representing both sides of the Hkr stemma, gjǫfli is preferred here, as by most of the early eds. However, gǫfgi ‘noble’ seems more appropriate to the context (so Krause 1990, 51) and is preferred by most recent eds.

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eyðanna ‘’

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œgir ‘terrifier’

œgir (noun m.): terrifier

[7] œgir: so F, J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, eyðir Kˣ(102r), 761bˣ

kennings

Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana
‘The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes ’
   = Hákon

The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes → Hákon
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Ey ‘of Island’

1. ey (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-; -jar): island < eydan (noun m.): island-Dane

[7] Eydana: eyðanna FskAˣ

kennings

Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana
‘The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes ’
   = Hákon

The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes → Hákon
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dana ‘Danes’

danr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): Dane < eydan (noun m.): island-Dane

[7] Eydana: eyðanna FskAˣ

kennings

Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana
‘The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes ’
   = Hákon

The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes → Hákon
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stóð ‘he stood’

standa (verb): stand

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háum ‘’

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ár ‘of metal’

1. ár (noun f.; °-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)): oar < árhjalmr (noun m.)

[8] ár‑: goll‑ F, háum FskBˣ

notes

[8] ár- ‘of metal’: Also ‘ore, copper, bronze’. This is probably a borrowing of OE ār ‘ore, brass, copper’ (so Noreen 1921, 54; cf. Wimmer 1877, 168; Holthausen 1896, 141). Moberg (1997) argues that árhjalmr designates a helmet with a conical top, assuming an OWN *ár ‘point, top, peak’. In regard to the variation between árhjalmi in this stanza and gollhjalmi ‘golden helmet’ in the next, Olsen (1962a, 6) would explain this as a matter of perspective: like the valkyries, he says, at one instant we see the helmet from above and at the next shining from a distance. The first element was earlier interpreted as ar- (an idea treaceable to Hkr 1697, I, 164), in reference to eagle images (so Sahlgren 1927-8, I, 62; also ÍF 26), or related to árr ‘early’ (so Du Méril 1839, 158); see also Lie (1948, 203).

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See st. 1.

[1-2]: The reading of J1ˣ, with J2ˣ in partial agreement, gives Hét á Holmrygi sá er her kallar ‘He who summons an army called on the Hólmrygir’, and it is adopted by Ettmüller (1858, 26; 1861, 26) and Cederström (1860, 7), but it is unlikely to be authorial, given the agreement of the other mss.

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