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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hák 2I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 176.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHákonarmál
123

Bróður ‘brother’

bróðir (noun m.; °bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---): brother

kennings

bróður Bjarnar
‘Bjǫrn’s brother ’
   = Hákon

Bjǫrn’s brother → Hákon

notes

[1] bróður Bjarnar ‘Bjǫrn’s brother [= Hákon]’: Bjǫrn ruled Vestfold after the death of his father Haraldr hárfagri. Krause (1990, 41-2) is possibly right that Hákon’s relation to him is mentioned here because of Bjǫrn’s popularity, and because of the unpopularity that his brother Eiríkr blóðøx (father of Hákon’s opponents here at the battle of Fitjar) gained by killing him. Olsen (1916a, 3; see also Paasche 1916, 15) sees this as a reminder of Hákon’s duty to avenge Bjǫrn’s death upon Eiríkr’s sons, complicated as such a supposed duty may seem.

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þær ‘They [the valkyries]’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

[1] þær: ‘þr’ J1ˣ(62r), þeir J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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bjarnir ‘’

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Bjarnar ‘Bjǫrn’s’

2. Bjǫrn (noun m.): Bjǫrn

[1] Bjarnar: ‘biarner’ J1ˣ(62r), J1ˣ(63v)

kennings

bróður Bjarnar
‘Bjǫrn’s brother ’
   = Hákon

Bjǫrn’s brother → Hákon

notes

[1] bróður Bjarnar ‘Bjǫrn’s brother [= Hákon]’: Bjǫrn ruled Vestfold after the death of his father Haraldr hárfagri. Krause (1990, 41-2) is possibly right that Hákon’s relation to him is mentioned here because of Bjǫrn’s popularity, and because of the unpopularity that his brother Eiríkr blóðøx (father of Hákon’s opponents here at the battle of Fitjar) gained by killing him. Olsen (1916a, 3; see also Paasche 1916, 15) sees this as a reminder of Hákon’s duty to avenge Bjǫrn’s death upon Eiríkr’s sons, complicated as such a supposed duty may seem.

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í ‘on’

í (prep.): in, into

[2] í: ór F(18ra)

notes

[2] fara í brynju ‘putting on a mail-shirt’: The F reading, ór brynju fara ‘taking off a mail-shirt’ is adopted by Müller (1837, 334) and Ettmüller (1858, 26; 1861, 26); see st. 4/1 and Note.

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brynju ‘a mail-shirt’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

notes

[2] fara í brynju ‘putting on a mail-shirt’: The F reading, ór brynju fara ‘taking off a mail-shirt’ is adopted by Müller (1837, 334) and Ettmüller (1858, 26; 1861, 26); see st. 4/1 and Note.

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fara ‘putting’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

notes

[2] fara í brynju ‘putting on a mail-shirt’: The F reading, ór brynju fara ‘taking off a mail-shirt’ is adopted by Müller (1837, 334) and Ettmüller (1858, 26; 1861, 26); see st. 4/1 and Note.

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inn ‘that’

2. inn (art.): the

[3] inn: in FskBˣ

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kostsama ‘admirable’

kostsamr (adj.): [admirable]

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ynd ‘’

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[4] und: við F(18ra), ‘ynd’ J1ˣ(62r), undir FskBˣ

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fanir ‘’

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fana ‘standard’

-fani (noun m.): [standard, banner] < gunnfani (noun m.)

[4] ‑fana: ‑fanir FskBˣ

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Drúpðu ‘drooped’

drúpa (verb; °-pð-): droop

notes

[5] dolgráar drúpðu ‘enmity-yard-arms [SPEARS] drooped’: The verb usually refers to drooping of the head. The idea here may be that the spears are tilted, either in their flight over the host (so Hkr 1991) or in a position ready to be cast (so LP: drúpa 2; Olsen 1962a, 4; Hkr 1991 again), or that they droop to drink blood (so CVC: drúpa; cf. lutu ‘bent’ in st. 7/3). Olsen (1916a, 3) sees in this line reference to a spear set to be cast over the enemy host to consecrate them as a sacrifice to Óðinn (cf. Þhorn Harkv 12/2). Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 60-1) believes that Snorri is interpreting ll. 5-6 when he relates (ÍF 26, 188) that after men had cast spears, they drew their swords. As an alternative he proposes to read dolgarar (the reading of J1ˣ, J2ˣ) ‘eagles of hostility’, i.e. of battle (cf. Grí 10). A further suggestion is dolgárar ‘battle-oars’ as a kenning for ‘swords’ (Nygaard 1875, 320; Wimmer 1877, 129; cf. Krause 1990, 44: dolgôr). Still others have assumed words meaning ‘enemies’, presumably feeling an animate subject to be more suitable for drúpðu ‘drooped’: either dolgar (Munch and Unger 1847, 115; Ettmüller 1858, 26; Ettmüller 1861, 26; Möbius 1860, 232; Cederström 1860, 7), or dolgárar (lit. ‘strife-envoys’, Tvedt 1921, 55); cf. also Du Méril (1839, 158), and Uppström (1919, 46).

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dolg ‘Enmity’

dolgr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): enemy, battle < dolgrá (noun f.): [Enmity-yard-arms]

[5] dolgráar (‘dolgrar’): ‘dolgarar’ J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), dolgar FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Dolgráar
‘Enmity-yard-arms ’
   = SPEARS

Enmity-yard-arms → SPEARS

notes

[5] dolgráar drúpðu ‘enmity-yard-arms [SPEARS] drooped’: The verb usually refers to drooping of the head. The idea here may be that the spears are tilted, either in their flight over the host (so Hkr 1991) or in a position ready to be cast (so LP: drúpa 2; Olsen 1962a, 4; Hkr 1991 again), or that they droop to drink blood (so CVC: drúpa; cf. lutu ‘bent’ in st. 7/3). Olsen (1916a, 3) sees in this line reference to a spear set to be cast over the enemy host to consecrate them as a sacrifice to Óðinn (cf. Þhorn Harkv 12/2). Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 60-1) believes that Snorri is interpreting ll. 5-6 when he relates (ÍF 26, 188) that after men had cast spears, they drew their swords. As an alternative he proposes to read dolgarar (the reading of J1ˣ, J2ˣ) ‘eagles of hostility’, i.e. of battle (cf. Grí 10). A further suggestion is dolgárar ‘battle-oars’ as a kenning for ‘swords’ (Nygaard 1875, 320; Wimmer 1877, 129; cf. Krause 1990, 44: dolgôr). Still others have assumed words meaning ‘enemies’, presumably feeling an animate subject to be more suitable for drúpðu ‘drooped’: either dolgar (Munch and Unger 1847, 115; Ettmüller 1858, 26; Ettmüller 1861, 26; Möbius 1860, 232; Cederström 1860, 7), or dolgárar (lit. ‘strife-envoys’, Tvedt 1921, 55); cf. also Du Méril (1839, 158), and Uppström (1919, 46).

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dolgarar ‘’

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ráar ‘yard-arms’

3. rá (noun f.): sail-yard < dolgrá (noun f.): [Enmity-yard-arms]

[5] dolgráar (‘dolgrar’): ‘dolgarar’ J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), dolgar FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Dolgráar
‘Enmity-yard-arms ’
   = SPEARS

Enmity-yard-arms → SPEARS

notes

[5] dolgráar drúpðu ‘enmity-yard-arms [SPEARS] drooped’: The verb usually refers to drooping of the head. The idea here may be that the spears are tilted, either in their flight over the host (so Hkr 1991) or in a position ready to be cast (so LP: drúpa 2; Olsen 1962a, 4; Hkr 1991 again), or that they droop to drink blood (so CVC: drúpa; cf. lutu ‘bent’ in st. 7/3). Olsen (1916a, 3) sees in this line reference to a spear set to be cast over the enemy host to consecrate them as a sacrifice to Óðinn (cf. Þhorn Harkv 12/2). Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 60-1) believes that Snorri is interpreting ll. 5-6 when he relates (ÍF 26, 188) that after men had cast spears, they drew their swords. As an alternative he proposes to read dolgarar (the reading of J1ˣ, J2ˣ) ‘eagles of hostility’, i.e. of battle (cf. Grí 10). A further suggestion is dolgárar ‘battle-oars’ as a kenning for ‘swords’ (Nygaard 1875, 320; Wimmer 1877, 129; cf. Krause 1990, 44: dolgôr). Still others have assumed words meaning ‘enemies’, presumably feeling an animate subject to be more suitable for drúpðu ‘drooped’: either dolgar (Munch and Unger 1847, 115; Ettmüller 1858, 26; Ettmüller 1861, 26; Möbius 1860, 232; Cederström 1860, 7), or dolgárar (lit. ‘strife-envoys’, Tvedt 1921, 55); cf. also Du Méril (1839, 158), and Uppström (1919, 46).

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darraðr ‘the banner’

darraðr (noun m.): [banner, standard]

[6] darraðr: darrar J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), ‘durr vordr’ FskBˣ, ‘daur’ FskAˣ

notes

[6] darraðr ‘the banner’: The word may be cognate with OE daroþ ‘spear’ (the meaning assumed by most eds), though the geminate <r> renders that doubtful. The word has also been thought by Falk (1924, 6-7) to mean ‘sword’. Holtsmark (1939) interprets it as a banner which is shaken as a sign for battle to begin, and this interpretation is now widely accepted: see Olsen (1962a, 4-5), Dronke (1969, 49-50) and particularly Poole (1991, 125-31).

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hristisk ‘shook’

hrista (verb): shake

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hildr ‘the battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

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of ‘’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[7] of hafin ‘begun’: Munch and Unger (1847) and Möbius (1860) adopt the reading um hafit, presumably ‘around the sea’, found in some mss.

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hafin ‘begun’

hefja (verb): lift, start

[7] hafin: hafit Kˣ, F(18ra), J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskAˣ, 761bˣ, hafinn FskBˣ

notes

[7] of hafin ‘begun’: Munch and Unger (1847) and Möbius (1860) adopt the reading um hafit, presumably ‘around the sea’, found in some mss.

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See st. 1.

For the battle of Fitjar (c. 961), see also sts 3-9 below, Eyv Lv 1-5, ÞSjár Þórdr and Glúmr Lv . — [5-7]: Here the metre changes from málaháttr to ljóðaháttr.

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