skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Eyv Hák 1I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 174.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHákonarmál
12

skangul ‘’

Close

Skǫgul ‘Skǫgul’

Skǫgul (noun f.): Skǫgul

[1] Skǫgul: ‘skangvl’ J1ˣ

Close

sendi ‘sent’

senda (verb): send

[2] sendi: sendir B

notes

[2] sendi ‘sent’: The verb is apparently unstressed. Here and at several other places in the poem (e.g. sts 12/1, 21/5) it is evident that neither málaháttr nor ljóðaháttr conforms to the Satzpartikelgesetz ‘law of sentence particles’ (Kuhn 1933, 8, 38-49), which dictates that finite verbs and other words that are neither clitics nor stress-words receive full stress unless they appear in the first upbeat of the sentence or clause.

Close

Gauta ‘The god’

gauti (noun m.): man, Geat

kennings

Gautatýr
‘The god of the Gautar ’
   = Óðinn

The god of the Gautar → Óðinn

notes

[2] Gautatýr ‘the god of the Gautar [= Óðinn]’: The Gautar were the inhabitants of Götaland, the Gēatas of the Old English Beowulf, though the term may be simply a heiti for humans in general (so de Vries 1934a, 37-8). Ninck (1935, 309) interprets it as referring to men as engenderers (connecting the word with ModGer. giessen ‘to pour’), and Meissner (Meissner 252) believes that such kennings originally referred to the ethnic group and its connection with Óðinn, but later became associated with the gods. Kuhn (1954, supported by Krause 1990, 32-3) argues that the word refers to sacrificial victims consecrated to the gods. The identity of týr in this and similar expressions for Óðinn is also uncertain. Snorri Sturluson (SnE 1998, I, 5) understands týr in compounds such as Sigtýr, Hangatýr and Farmatýr as the name of the god Týr, commenting that the name of one of the Æsir can be joined by an attribute or deed of a second god in order to refer to that second god, i.e. a god-name can be the base-word in a kenning for a different god. Accordingly, various eds and LP: týr 2 assume the god’s name and print the capitalised form Týr. However, a common noun meaning ‘god’, with sg. form týr corresponding to the well-attested pl. tívar ‘gods’, is also possible and may be indicated by the fact that týr alternates with goð ‘god’ in some Óðinn-names (as noted in Meissner 252). Several eds assume the common noun in the present instance of Gautatýr, including ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991, and the present edn assumes it in the group as a whole (so also Faulkes, SnE 1998, II, 514). 

Close

týr ‘of the Gautar’

Týr (noun m.): Týr

kennings

Gautatýr
‘The god of the Gautar ’
   = Óðinn

The god of the Gautar → Óðinn

notes

[2] Gautatýr ‘the god of the Gautar [= Óðinn]’: The Gautar were the inhabitants of Götaland, the Gēatas of the Old English Beowulf, though the term may be simply a heiti for humans in general (so de Vries 1934a, 37-8). Ninck (1935, 309) interprets it as referring to men as engenderers (connecting the word with ModGer. giessen ‘to pour’), and Meissner (Meissner 252) believes that such kennings originally referred to the ethnic group and its connection with Óðinn, but later became associated with the gods. Kuhn (1954, supported by Krause 1990, 32-3) argues that the word refers to sacrificial victims consecrated to the gods. The identity of týr in this and similar expressions for Óðinn is also uncertain. Snorri Sturluson (SnE 1998, I, 5) understands týr in compounds such as Sigtýr, Hangatýr and Farmatýr as the name of the god Týr, commenting that the name of one of the Æsir can be joined by an attribute or deed of a second god in order to refer to that second god, i.e. a god-name can be the base-word in a kenning for a different god. Accordingly, various eds and LP: týr 2 assume the god’s name and print the capitalised form Týr. However, a common noun meaning ‘god’, with sg. form týr corresponding to the well-attested pl. tívar ‘gods’, is also possible and may be indicated by the fact that týr alternates with goð ‘god’ in some Óðinn-names (as noted in Meissner 252). Several eds assume the common noun in the present instance of Gautatýr, including ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991, and the present edn assumes it in the group as a whole (so also Faulkes, SnE 1998, II, 514). 

Close

kjósa ‘choose’

kjósa (verb): choose

Close

hvæir ‘’

Close

hverr ‘which’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[4] hverr: ‘hvæir’ FskBˣ, hvarr U

Close

Yngva ‘of Yngvi’

Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince

notes

[4] ættar Yngva ‘of the kin of Yngvi’: Yngvi is the eponymous progenitor of the Swedish Yngling dynasty at Uppsala and hence of the Norwegian branch of the dynasty (see Introduction to Þjóð Yt, and Heusler 1908, 143-5 on the Yngling genealogy). He has been identified with the god Freyr, partly because Yngvi-Freyr is a name for Freyr (e.g. LP: Yngvi 1, Yngvifreyr), but this identification is by no means certain. It is also uncertain whether ætt Yngva has specific genealogical reference. Yngvi is plainly a generic ruler-heiti in some contexts (see SnE 1998, I, 104-5 for Yngvi and Ynglingr, and LP: Yngvi 2), and some scholars (Baetke 1964, 111-12; Koht 1955, 23-4) see most references to ‘Yngvi’s kin’ and such as generalized kennings for rulers. The use of ætt ‘kin’ does not help to disambiguate the reference of Yngvi/yngvi here since it occurs both with gen. pl. nouns meaning ‘of men, rulers’ etc. and with personal names in the gen. sg. (see LP: ætt). The same problem arises with ungum ynglingi ‘young king’, used of Haraldr hárfagri in Þhorn Harkv 4/7; see Note.

Close

ættar ‘of the kin’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

notes

[4] ættar Yngva ‘of the kin of Yngvi’: Yngvi is the eponymous progenitor of the Swedish Yngling dynasty at Uppsala and hence of the Norwegian branch of the dynasty (see Introduction to Þjóð Yt, and Heusler 1908, 143-5 on the Yngling genealogy). He has been identified with the god Freyr, partly because Yngvi-Freyr is a name for Freyr (e.g. LP: Yngvi 1, Yngvifreyr), but this identification is by no means certain. It is also uncertain whether ætt Yngva has specific genealogical reference. Yngvi is plainly a generic ruler-heiti in some contexts (see SnE 1998, I, 104-5 for Yngvi and Ynglingr, and LP: Yngvi 2), and some scholars (Baetke 1964, 111-12; Koht 1955, 23-4) see most references to ‘Yngvi’s kin’ and such as generalized kennings for rulers. The use of ætt ‘kin’ does not help to disambiguate the reference of Yngvi/yngvi here since it occurs both with gen. pl. nouns meaning ‘of men, rulers’ etc. and with personal names in the gen. sg. (see LP: ætt). The same problem arises with ungum ynglingi ‘young king’, used of Haraldr hárfagri in Þhorn Harkv 4/7; see Note.

Close

skyldi ‘should’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[5] skyldi: ‘sk[...]lde’ B

Close

Óðni ‘Óðinn’

Óðinn (noun m.): Óðinn

[5] Óðni: Óðin J1ˣ

Close

ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[6] ok: om. J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, W

Close

hǫllu ‘’

Close

vesa ‘live’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[6] vesa (‘vera’): so F, R, Tˣ, U, B, at vera Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, W, 761bˣ

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, the poem is presented at the close of HákGóð after a description of Hákon’s obsequies. In Fsk, the prose that precedes the first three stanzas describes how before the battle of Fitjar the king donned his war-gear and drew up his forces. In SnE, Snorri quotes this stanza in a collection of stanzas illustrating references to Óðinn (mostly kennings).

Fsk introduces sts 1-3, sem Eyvindr segir í kvæði því, er hann orti eptir fall Hákonar, ok setti hann þat eptir því sem Gunnhildr hafði látit yrkja um Eirík sem Óðinn byði hónum heim til Valhallar, ok segir hann marga atburði í kvæðinu frá orrostunni, ok hefr svá ‘as Eyvindr says in the poem that he composed after Hákon’s fall, and he modelled it after the one that Gunnhildr had had composed about Eiríkr, as if Óðinn were inviting him home to Valhǫll, and in the poem he narrates many events from the battle, and it begins thus’. — [1] Gǫndul ok Skǫgul ‘Gǫndul and Skǫgul’: These are two of the valkyrjur (etymologically ‘choosers of the slain’), female beings associated with Óðinn who, as here, determine the outcome of battles, selecting warriors slain in battle for Valhǫll, the hall of the slain. The valkyries’ warrior equipment is described in st. 12. Gǫndul and Skǫgul (Geir-Skǫgul in st. 12/2) are named in Vsp 30, and Skǫgul is among thirteen valkyries named in Grí 36. On valkyries in Scandinavian mythology, see further Ström (1954, 70-9); Andersen (1993); Simek (1993, 349); Zimmermann (2007); Quinn (forthcoming).

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.