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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hál 3I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 201.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHáleygjatal
234

Þás ‘When’

þás (conj.): when

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ofræstr ‘’

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ro᷎str ‘’

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ræstr ‘’

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útrǫst ‘outlying tract’

útrǫst (noun f.): [outlying tract]

[1] útrǫst: ‘at ro᷎str’ Tˣ, ‘vt ræstr’ W, ‘ofræstr’ U

notes

[1] útrǫst ‘the outlying tract’: This rare word (see CVC, Fritzner: útröst) is based on rǫst f., which normally refers to a distance of now uncertain length (e.g. Sigv Austv 3/1, pl. rastir).

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jarla ‘of jarls’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

kennings

bági jarla
‘the adversary of jarls ’
   = RULER

the adversary of jarls → RULER
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bági ‘the adversary’

bági (noun m.; °-a): adversary

kennings

bági jarla
‘the adversary of jarls ’
   = RULER

the adversary of jarls → RULER
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Belja ‘of Beli’

Beli (noun m.): Beli

kennings

dolgs Belja.
‘of the enemy of Beli.’
   = Freyr

the enemy of Beli. → Freyr

notes

[3] dolgs Belja ‘of the enemy of Beli <giant> [= Freyr]’: Freyr slew the giant Beli using an antler in the absence of his sword, at some time before his death at Ragnarǫk at the hands of Surtr (Gylf, SnE 2005, 31-2, 50; cf. Simek 1993, 33; see Note to st. 1/9 Surts).

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dolgs ‘of the enemy’

dolgr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): enemy, battle

[3] dolgs: dolgr U

kennings

dolgs Belja.
‘of the enemy of Beli.’
   = Freyr

the enemy of Beli. → Freyr

notes

[3] dolgs Belja ‘of the enemy of Beli <giant> [= Freyr]’: Freyr slew the giant Beli using an antler in the absence of his sword, at some time before his death at Ragnarǫk at the hands of Surtr (Gylf, SnE 2005, 31-2, 50; cf. Simek 1993, 33; see Note to st. 1/9 Surts).

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The helmingr is cited to illustrate a Freyr-kenning (dolgr Belja ‘enemy of Beli’).

This stanza is accepted by scholars as belonging to Hál. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) suggested that the bági jarla ‘adversary of jarls’ who is the subject of the stanza might be Goðgestr (Godgestus in Thormod Torfaeus’s list; see Introduction), but there is no evident connection between his story as told in Hkr (ÍF 26, 57) and the present stanza. — [2-3]: As noted above, it is unknown who the bági ‘adversary’ is, and two possible syntactic construals are possible. (a) The interpretation adopted in this edn is that útrǫst Belja dolgs ‘the outlying tract of the enemy of Beli [= Freyr]’ belongs together, as the object of the sentence, leaving bági jarla ‘adversary of earls’ as the subject (cf. SnE 1998, I, 167). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) points out the possibility of an alternative division into bági dolgs Belja ‘adversary of the enemy of Beli [= Freyr > = Surtr]’ (subject) and útrǫst jarla ‘outlying tract of the jarls’ (object), without reaching a definite decision, but this assumes a somewhat strained word order, and Surtr seems an altogether unlikely adversary for the jarls, given the focus in the rest of Hál on their enemies amongst human beings (mennskir menn).

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