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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hál 2I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 199.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHáleygjatal
123x

Þann ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

þann skattfœri
‘that tribute-bringer ’
   = JARL = Sæmingr

that tribute-bringer → JARL = Sæmingr
Close

skjald ‘The shield’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield < skjaldblœtr (noun m.)

[1] skjald‑: skald‑ F

kennings

Skjaldblœtr niðr Ása
‘The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir ’
   = Óðinn

The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir → Óðinn

notes

[1] skjaldblœtr ‘shield-worshipped’: The element -blœtr appears to be etymologically related to blót, blóta ‘sacrifice, worship’; on its morphology, see Hkr 1893-1901, IV. The description ‘shield-worshipped’ may allude to a practice of incantation by warriors from under their shields as a prelude to battle (Hávm 156; possibly also Egill Lv 30V (Eg 59)); Tacitus reports a similar practice among Germanic warriors as a form of divination before battle (Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1902, 196-8; Anderson 1938, 1, 3, 1; Mattingly 1970, 103; Marold 2001b, 96 and n. 38). Another explanation of skjaldblœtr might be that shields were sacrificed to Óðinn, although clear archaeological or literary evidence for such a practice in the Viking Age is lacking. The reading of F, skaldblœtr ‘worshipped by skalds’, is preferred by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) but is probably a lectio facilior (Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1902, 196).

Close

blœtr ‘worshipped’

-blœtr (adj.): worshipped, bleeding < skjaldblœtr (noun m.)-blœtr (adj.): worshipped, bleeding < skald-blœtr (adj.)

kennings

Skjaldblœtr niðr Ása
‘The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir ’
   = Óðinn

The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir → Óðinn

notes

[1] skjaldblœtr ‘shield-worshipped’: The element -blœtr appears to be etymologically related to blót, blóta ‘sacrifice, worship’; on its morphology, see Hkr 1893-1901, IV. The description ‘shield-worshipped’ may allude to a practice of incantation by warriors from under their shields as a prelude to battle (Hávm 156; possibly also Egill Lv 30V (Eg 59)); Tacitus reports a similar practice among Germanic warriors as a form of divination before battle (Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1902, 196-8; Anderson 1938, 1, 3, 1; Mattingly 1970, 103; Marold 2001b, 96 and n. 38). Another explanation of skjaldblœtr might be that shields were sacrificed to Óðinn, although clear archaeological or literary evidence for such a practice in the Viking Age is lacking. The reading of F, skaldblœtr ‘worshipped by skalds’, is preferred by Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) but is probably a lectio facilior (Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1902, 196).

Close

skatt ‘tribute’

skattr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): treasure, wealth < skattfœrir (noun m.)

kennings

þann skattfœri
‘that tribute-bringer ’
   = JARL = Sæmingr

that tribute-bringer → JARL = Sæmingr

notes

[2] skattfœri ‘tribute-bringer [JARL = Sæmingr]’: An unusual kenning seemingly based on the idea that a jarl acknowledges a king as his overlord by bringing tribute (ÍF 26). This son of Óðinn and Skaði is not identified in the stanza but Torfaeus agrees with SnE in identifying Sæmingr as Hákon’s founding ancestor (see Context and Introduction). 

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fœri ‘bringer’

fœrir (noun m.): [bringer] < skattfœrir (noun m.)

kennings

þann skattfœri
‘that tribute-bringer ’
   = JARL = Sæmingr

that tribute-bringer → JARL = Sæmingr

notes

[2] skattfœri ‘tribute-bringer [JARL = Sæmingr]’: An unusual kenning seemingly based on the idea that a jarl acknowledges a king as his overlord by bringing tribute (ÍF 26). This son of Óðinn and Skaði is not identified in the stanza but Torfaeus agrees with SnE in identifying Sæmingr as Hákon’s founding ancestor (see Context and Introduction). 

Close

Ása ‘of the Æsir’

2. Áss (noun m.; °áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar): god

kennings

Skjaldblœtr niðr Ása
‘The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir ’
   = Óðinn

The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir → Óðinn

notes

[3] niðr Ása ‘the kinsman of the Æsir <gods> [= Óðinn]’: The god who fathers Sæmingr jarl is identified as Óðinn later in the stanza, as also in Yng (ÍF 26, 21) and the Prologue to SnE (2005, 6, where Hál is mentioned but not quoted), but his paternity is assigned to Yngvi-Freyr in the Prologue to Hkr (ÍF 26, 4).

Close

niðr ‘kinsman’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

Skjaldblœtr niðr Ása
‘The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir ’
   = Óðinn

The shield-worshipped kinsman of the Æsir → Óðinn

notes

[3] niðr Ása ‘the kinsman of the Æsir <gods> [= Óðinn]’: The god who fathers Sæmingr jarl is identified as Óðinn later in the stanza, as also in Yng (ÍF 26, 21) and the Prologue to SnE (2005, 6, where Hál is mentioned but not quoted), but his paternity is assigned to Yngvi-Freyr in the Prologue to Hkr (ÍF 26, 4).

Close

við ‘with’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[4] við: í J2ˣ

Close

járn ‘the female’

járn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon < Járnviðja (noun f.): Járnviðjajárn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon < Járnviðr (noun m.): [Ironwood]

notes

[4] járnviðju ‘the female from Járnviðr’: This is to be identified as Skaði, as the poem presently explains (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). Vsp 40/2 represents Járnviðr as a forest in the east where a troll-woman gives birth to giants in the form of wolves (cf. Gylf, SnE 2005, 14; Simek 1993, 179). The p. n. means ‘Iron-wood’.

Close

viðju ‘from Járnviðr’

1. viðja (noun f.; °; -ur): [from Járnviðr] < Járnviðja (noun f.): Járnviðja

[4] ‑viðju: ‑viði J2ˣ

notes

[4] járnviðju ‘the female from Járnviðr’: This is to be identified as Skaði, as the poem presently explains (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). Vsp 40/2 represents Járnviðr as a forest in the east where a troll-woman gives birth to giants in the form of wolves (cf. Gylf, SnE 2005, 14; Simek 1993, 179). The p. n. means ‘Iron-wood’.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

mær ‘renowned ones’

2. mærr (adj.): famous

[5] mær: so J2ˣ, mærr Kˣ, meirr F

notes

[5] mær ‘renowned ones’: This adj. appears to be n. pl. of mærr, agreeing with þau, the mixed-gender pron. referring to Óðinn and Skaði (so ÍF 26), though the ms. evidence is equivocal. Finnur Jónsson preferred the reading meir, which he took in the sense ‘subsequently’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[6] manheimum ‘the lands of the maiden (lit. “maiden-lands”)’: This cpd is tentatively taken here as forming an inverted kenning with l. 9, sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: see Note. A form Mannheimar ‘lands/worlds of men’ is used to refer to part of Sweden in the prose that immediately follows st. 2 in Yng (ÍF 26, 22; mss and J2ˣ have mann-, while F has man). For attempts to harmonise mann- with Eyvindr’s man-, see e.g. Eggert Ó. Brím (1895, 5), who takes man- to mean ‘love’; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Krause (1990, 149); Steinsland (1991, 216).

Close

man ‘of the maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < Manheimar (noun m.)

[6] man‑: mann‑ J2ˣ

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[6] manheimum ‘the lands of the maiden (lit. “maiden-lands”)’: This cpd is tentatively taken here as forming an inverted kenning with l. 9, sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: see Note. A form Mannheimar ‘lands/worlds of men’ is used to refer to part of Sweden in the prose that immediately follows st. 2 in Yng (ÍF 26, 22; mss and J2ˣ have mann-, while F has man). For attempts to harmonise mann- with Eyvindr’s man-, see e.g. Eggert Ó. Brím (1895, 5), who takes man- to mean ‘love’; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Krause (1990, 149); Steinsland (1991, 216).

Close

man ‘of the maiden’

man (noun n.): girl < Manheimar (noun m.)

[6] man‑: mann‑ J2ˣ

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[6] manheimum ‘the lands of the maiden (lit. “maiden-lands”)’: This cpd is tentatively taken here as forming an inverted kenning with l. 9, sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: see Note. A form Mannheimar ‘lands/worlds of men’ is used to refer to part of Sweden in the prose that immediately follows st. 2 in Yng (ÍF 26, 22; mss and J2ˣ have mann-, while F has man). For attempts to harmonise mann- with Eyvindr’s man-, see e.g. Eggert Ó. Brím (1895, 5), who takes man- to mean ‘love’; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Krause (1990, 149); Steinsland (1991, 216).

Close

heimum ‘the lands’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < Manheimar (noun m.)heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < mannheimr (noun m.)

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[6] manheimum ‘the lands of the maiden (lit. “maiden-lands”)’: This cpd is tentatively taken here as forming an inverted kenning with l. 9, sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: see Note. A form Mannheimar ‘lands/worlds of men’ is used to refer to part of Sweden in the prose that immediately follows st. 2 in Yng (ÍF 26, 22; mss and J2ˣ have mann-, while F has man). For attempts to harmonise mann- with Eyvindr’s man-, see e.g. Eggert Ó. Brím (1895, 5), who takes man- to mean ‘love’; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Krause (1990, 149); Steinsland (1991, 216).

Close

skatna ‘of warriors’

skati (noun m.; °-a; -nar): chieftan, prince

kennings

vinr skatna
‘the friend of warriors ’
   = Óðinn

the friend of warriors → Óðinn
Close

vinr ‘the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

vinr skatna
‘the friend of warriors ’
   = Óðinn

the friend of warriors → Óðinn
Close

Skaði ‘Skaði [giantess]’

Skaði (noun f.): Skaði

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

beins ‘of the bone’

bein (noun n.; °-s; -): bone

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

beins ‘of the bone’

bein (noun n.; °-s; -): bone

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

beins ‘of the bone’

bein (noun n.; °-s; -): bone

kennings

sævar beins manheimum
‘maiden-lands of the bone of the sea’
   = Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

the bone of the sea, → ROCK
the maiden of the ROCK → GIANTESS
the lands of GIANTESS → Jǫtunheimar ‘Giant-lands’

notes

[9] sævar beins ‘of the bone of the sea [ROCK]’: This belongs to a kenning type also found in Þjóð Yt (e.g. 23/6). Its application within the stanza has proved difficult to determine. (a) Beins sævar is construed here with manheimum ‘maiden-lands’ in l. 6 to form an inverted kenning for Jǫtunheimar (‘Giant-lands’) (Poole 2007b, 165). In Gylf (SnE 2005, 23) Skaði is said to have her home in the mountains, in contrast to her first husband Njǫrðr, who is at home by the sea, and this allows the giantess-kenning to be equated with jǫtunn, normally ‘giant’ rather than ‘giantess’. The elements of the extended kenning cross the boundary between helmingar, as also, e.g., in st. 9/2, 5. (b) Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 198) treats ll. 1-8 and 9-12 as a unity, as in this edn, but posits that beins sævar joins with ǫndurdís ‘ski-goddess’ to form a kenning for Skaði as giantess. However, such use of a double determinant (ǫndur- and beins sævar) would be hard to parallel. (c) Other eds supposed that beins sævar referred back to a lost part of the stanza (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Noreen 1921, 59-62; ÍF 26, 22 n.; Krause 1990; Hkr 1991), but there is no reason to postulate such a loss.

Close

ǫndur ‘the ski’

andr (noun m.; °; andrar): ski < ǫndurdís (noun f.): [ski-dís]andr (noun m.; °; andrar): ski

kennings

ǫndurdís
‘the ski-goddess ’
   = Skaði

the ski-goddess → Skaði

notes

[11] ǫndurdís ‘the ski-goddess [= Skaði]’: Skaði was celebrated for her skiing and hunting (SnE 2005, 24; cf. Simek 1993, 286).

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dís ‘goddess’

dís (noun f.; °; -ir): dís, woman < ǫndurdís (noun f.): [ski-dís]

[11] ‑dís: Gnô J2ˣ

kennings

ǫndurdís
‘the ski-goddess ’
   = Skaði

the ski-goddess → Skaði

notes

[11] ǫndurdís ‘the ski-goddess [= Skaði]’: Skaði was celebrated for her skiing and hunting (SnE 2005, 24; cf. Simek 1993, 286).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After Skaði’s failed marriage to Njǫrðr, she marries Óðinn and they have many sons, one of whom is called Sæmingr. The stanza is followed by the comment that Hákon jarl reckoned his lineage back to Sæmingr.

Earlier eds assume that ll. 9-12 belong to a separate stanza from ll. 1-8 (Skj; ÍF 26; Davidson 1983, 96-7) but in this edn they are treated as a single stanza (see Note to st. 2/9 below and Poole 2007b, 162-5).

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