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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hál 11I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 210.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHáleygjatal
101112

Þar ‘There’

þar (adv.): there

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varð ‘came about’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[1] varð: var 39, F, J1ˣ

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minnz ‘’

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minnstr ‘the least’

3. minni (adj. comp.; °superl. minnstr): less, least

[1] minnstr: ‘minnz’ J1ˣ

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mein ‘of the harm’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury < meinvinnandi (noun m.)

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

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mein ‘of the harm’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury < meinvinnandi (noun m.)

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

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vinnǫndum ‘for the workers’

vinnandi (noun m.; °; vinnendr): worker, winner < meinvinnandi (noun m.)

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

Close

Yngvi ‘of Yngvi’

Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince < Yngvifreyr (noun m.)Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

Close

Yngvi ‘of Yngvi’

Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince < Yngvifreyr (noun m.)Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

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freyrs ‘’

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Freys ‘Freyr’

Freyr (noun m.): (a god) < Yngvifreyr (noun m.)

[3] ‑Freys: ‘‑freyrs’ F

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

Close

Freys ‘Freyr’

Freyr (noun m.): (a god) < Yngvifreyr (noun m.)

[3] ‑Freys: ‘‑freyrs’ F

kennings

Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum
‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’
   = WARRIORS

the harm of Yngvi-Freyr → BATTLE
for the workers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[2-3] Yngvi-Freys meinvinnǫndum ‘for the workers of the harm of Yngvi-Freyr <god> [(lit. ‘harm-workers of Yngvi-Freyr’) BATTLE > WARRIORS]’: The warrior-kenning is unusual. Yngvi-Freyr is a name of Freyr (see LP: Yngvifreyr). The word mein ‘harm’ is associated with Freyr in both Lok 43/5 and Gylf (SnE 2005, 31), but its precise significance in this context remains uncertain. A battle-kenning seems most likely as the determinant qualifying vinnǫndum (dat. pl.) ‘workers’, and this is supported by leikr Freys ‘sport of Freyr [BATTLE]’, Þhorn Harkv 6/4 and Note. Although Freyr is not normally a battle-god but a deity presiding over peace and good crops (Gylf, SnE 2005, 24), war could be regarded as a source of harm to him (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: meinvinnandi; cf. ÍF 26). The warriors denoted by the kenning can be identified with the Jómsvíkingar and other adversaries of Hákon jarl and his son, Eiríkr.

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flota ‘their fleet’

floti (noun m.): fleet

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þeystu ‘impelled’

þeysa (verb): hasten

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jarðráðendr ‘the rulers of the land’

jarðráðandi (noun m.): land-ruler

kennings

jarðráðendr
‘the rulers of the land ’
   = RULERS

the rulers of the land → RULERS

notes

[7, 8] jarðráðendr … eyðǫndum ‘the rulers of the land … the ravagers’: The wording here presents difficulties. (a) In this edn the reading of and J1ˣ is retained. Normally in skaldic usage the agentive eyðǫndum ‘ravagers’ would be associated with an object, expressed via an objective gen. or prefixed flexionless noun, but it may be that jarð- ‘land’ in the previous line has a dual role, also providing such an object in a kind of apo koinou (cf. NN §3209; ÍF 26). (b) Against this, Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s emendation Eydǫnum (LP: eyða; cf. Jón Þorkelsson 1884, 55; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) is supported by œgir Eydana ‘intimidator of the Island-Danes’, denoting Hákon jarl, in Eyv Hák 3/7. Although Eydanir normally refers to the Danes (LP: ey-Danir), it is possible that the Jómsvíkingar could be thought of as ‘Island-Danes’, especially if, as Finnur Jónsson suggested, they had affiliations with Bornholm (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; but contrast NN §3209).

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eyrindum ‘’

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eyðændum ‘’

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eyðǫndum ‘the ravagers’

2. eyða (verb; °-dd-): destroy

[8] eyðǫndum: ‘eyrinndom’ 39, F, ‘eyðænndvm’ J1ˣ

notes

[7, 8] jarðráðendr … eyðǫndum ‘the rulers of the land … the ravagers’: The wording here presents difficulties. (a) In this edn the reading of and J1ˣ is retained. Normally in skaldic usage the agentive eyðǫndum ‘ravagers’ would be associated with an object, expressed via an objective gen. or prefixed flexionless noun, but it may be that jarð- ‘land’ in the previous line has a dual role, also providing such an object in a kind of apo koinou (cf. NN §3209; ÍF 26). (b) Against this, Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s emendation Eydǫnum (LP: eyða; cf. Jón Þorkelsson 1884, 55; Hkr 1893-1901; Skj B) is supported by œgir Eydana ‘intimidator of the Island-Danes’, denoting Hákon jarl, in Eyv Hák 3/7. Although Eydanir normally refers to the Danes (LP: ey-Danir), it is possible that the Jómsvíkingar could be thought of as ‘Island-Danes’, especially if, as Finnur Jónsson suggested, they had affiliations with Bornholm (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; but contrast NN §3209).

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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sverð ‘the sword’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword < sverðalfr (noun m.)

kennings

sverðalfr
‘the sword-elf ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-elf → WARRIOR

notes

[9] sverðalfr ‘the sword-elf [WARRIOR]’: Normally taken to be Hákon jarl, following Hkr (see Context), but Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests Sigvaldi jarl, leader of the Jómsvíkingar.

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alfr ‘elf’

alfr (noun m.; °; -ar): elf < sverðalfr (noun m.)

kennings

sverðalfr
‘the sword-elf ’
   = WARRIOR

the sword-elf → WARRIOR

notes

[9] sverðalfr ‘the sword-elf [WARRIOR]’: Normally taken to be Hákon jarl, following Hkr (see Context), but Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests Sigvaldi jarl, leader of the Jómsvíkingar.

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sunnan ‘from the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

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lagar ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

kennings

stóð lagar
‘his stud-horses of the sea ’
   = SHIPS

his stud-horses of the sea → SHIPS
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stóð ‘his stud-horses’

2. stóð (noun n.; °-s): stud-horse

kennings

stóð lagar
‘his stud-horses of the sea ’
   = SHIPS

his stud-horses of the sea → SHIPS

notes

[11] stóð ‘stud-horses’: The word is grammatically sg., with the collective meaning ‘stud, stud-horses’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Hákon jarl Sigurðarson brings his fleet from the south in haste to meet the Jómsvíkingar, under Sigvaldi jarl, and other opponents, prior to the battle of Hjǫrungavágr (Liavågen).

On Hákon jarl Sigurðarson, the battle of Hjǫrungavágr c. 985, and other skaldic poetry associated with it, see ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume. — This is the sole surviving stanza from what may have been a more extended account (Finnur Jónsson 1910-12, 263). Lines 9-12 are printed as a separate stanza in Skj (but not Hkr 1893-1901), for reasons that are unclear.

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