Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Eyv Hál 10I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 208.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHáleygjatal
91011

ǫðlingu ‘’

Close

ǫðlingr ‘prince’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

[1] ǫðlingr: ǫðlingi J2ˣ, ‘oðlingu’ J1ˣ

Close

í ‘at’

í (prep.): in, into

[2] í ǫlun: ǫlun J1ˣ, jólum Flat

Close

ǫlun ‘the ale-feast’

ǫlun (noun f.): [ale-feast]

[2] í ǫlun: ǫlun J1ˣ, jólum Flat

notes

[2] ǫlun ‘ale-feast’: This obscure word has caused difficulty in interpretation. (a) It is construed in this edn as dat. case of an otherwise unattested fem. noun *ǫlun ‘ale-drinking’, to be explained as a deverbative of a common type from *ǫlva ‘to ply with ale’ (Poole 2007b, 170-3). The inf. is not recorded but may be inferred from ǫlvaðr ‘drunk, inebriated’, and the 3rd pers. pres. indic. ǫlvir seems to be attested in Egill Lv 6/1V (Eg 10). A ModIcel. morphological counterpart is ölvun ‘intoxication, drunkenness’, where -v- reflects analogical reformation from the verb. For ale ceremonies or rituals, see ARG I, 425; Brink (1999a, 13) and cf. the account in Egils saga (ÍF 2, 108). The reading of Flat, jólum ‘at Yuletide’, refers to a kindred type of occasion. (b) Some previous eds (Kock NN §1056; ÍF 26; ÍF 29) construe ǫlun as acc. from ǫlunn m., the name of a fish, usually identified as ‘mackerel’, and retain ms. jarðar, also in l. 2. The kenning ǫlun jarðar ‘fish of the earth [SNAKE]’ is equated with the heiti linnr, which normally means ‘snake’ but also occurs as a heiti for ‘fire’ in Þul Elds 2/2III. Thus, by ofljóst, ǫlun jarðar would signify ‘fire’. This interpretation fits well with the mention of fire in the prose sources, but an ofljóst that hinges on linnr in the sense ‘fire’, unattested outside the þulur, is implausible; the acc. case, rather than the expected dat. (ǫlni) following í ‘in, at’, remains a problem (ÍF 26; ÍF 29); and this solution entails double alliteration (see Note to ll. 2-3). (c) Ǫlun f. is a variant form of ǫln, alin ‘forearm’, but would be difficult to accommodate in the stanza. (d) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) regarded the crux as insoluble.

Close

Njarðar ‘of the Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr

[2] Njarðar: jarðar Kˣ, 39, F, J1ˣ, Flat, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, var Bb

kennings

Njarðar orms alnar,
‘of the Njǫrðr of the serpent of the forearm, ’
   = MAN

the serpent of the forearm, → ARM-RING
the Njǫrðr of the ARM-RING → MAN

notes

[2-3] Njarðar orms alnar ‘of the Njǫrðr <god> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > MAN]’: (a) Previous eds retain ms. jarðar ‘of the earth’, the reading of all mss, and interpret it as part of an ofljóst expression for ‘fire’ (see Note to l. 2), while taking ǫðlingr orms alnar ‘prince of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN]’ together. However, ǫðlingr ‘prince’ normally stands alone rather than functioning as the base-word of a kenning. An alternative would be to read Jarðar orms alnar ‘of the Jǫrð <goddess> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > WOMAN]’. However, in either case retaining jarðar entails double alliteration in an even line, which is conventionally proscribed and scarcely to be paralleled in poetry before the late C12th (Poole 2007b, 173). (c) In this edn jarðar is therefore emended to Njarðar. Reduction of final -n in ǫlun and initial N- in Njarðar to single -n- could easily have arisen in transmission. The name Njǫrðr appears to have been especially prone to corruption by scribes; cf. Eyv Lv 2/1, where , F, and other mss have the erroneous norðr. The identity of the person referred to by the kenning remains unclear, but he might be the local magnate responsible for the feast (veizla). The arm-ring is perhaps mentioned pointedly, since such rings are associated not merely with personal affluence but also with ceremonies where pledges and oaths are taken (Olsen 1966, 48-9).

Close

alnar ‘of the forearm’

alin (noun f.): forearm, ell

kennings

Njarðar orms alnar,
‘of the Njǫrðr of the serpent of the forearm, ’
   = MAN

the serpent of the forearm, → ARM-RING
the Njǫrðr of the ARM-RING → MAN

notes

[2-3] Njarðar orms alnar ‘of the Njǫrðr <god> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > MAN]’: (a) Previous eds retain ms. jarðar ‘of the earth’, the reading of all mss, and interpret it as part of an ofljóst expression for ‘fire’ (see Note to l. 2), while taking ǫðlingr orms alnar ‘prince of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN]’ together. However, ǫðlingr ‘prince’ normally stands alone rather than functioning as the base-word of a kenning. An alternative would be to read Jarðar orms alnar ‘of the Jǫrð <goddess> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > WOMAN]’. However, in either case retaining jarðar entails double alliteration in an even line, which is conventionally proscribed and scarcely to be paralleled in poetry before the late C12th (Poole 2007b, 173). (c) In this edn jarðar is therefore emended to Njarðar. Reduction of final -n in ǫlun and initial N- in Njarðar to single -n- could easily have arisen in transmission. The name Njǫrðr appears to have been especially prone to corruption by scribes; cf. Eyv Lv 2/1, where , F, and other mss have the erroneous norðr. The identity of the person referred to by the kenning remains unclear, but he might be the local magnate responsible for the feast (veizla). The arm-ring is perhaps mentioned pointedly, since such rings are associated not merely with personal affluence but also with ceremonies where pledges and oaths are taken (Olsen 1966, 48-9).

Close

alnar ‘of the forearm’

alin (noun f.): forearm, ell

kennings

Njarðar orms alnar,
‘of the Njǫrðr of the serpent of the forearm, ’
   = MAN

the serpent of the forearm, → ARM-RING
the Njǫrðr of the ARM-RING → MAN

notes

[2-3] Njarðar orms alnar ‘of the Njǫrðr <god> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > MAN]’: (a) Previous eds retain ms. jarðar ‘of the earth’, the reading of all mss, and interpret it as part of an ofljóst expression for ‘fire’ (see Note to l. 2), while taking ǫðlingr orms alnar ‘prince of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN]’ together. However, ǫðlingr ‘prince’ normally stands alone rather than functioning as the base-word of a kenning. An alternative would be to read Jarðar orms alnar ‘of the Jǫrð <goddess> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > WOMAN]’. However, in either case retaining jarðar entails double alliteration in an even line, which is conventionally proscribed and scarcely to be paralleled in poetry before the late C12th (Poole 2007b, 173). (c) In this edn jarðar is therefore emended to Njarðar. Reduction of final -n in ǫlun and initial N- in Njarðar to single -n- could easily have arisen in transmission. The name Njǫrðr appears to have been especially prone to corruption by scribes; cf. Eyv Lv 2/1, where , F, and other mss have the erroneous norðr. The identity of the person referred to by the kenning remains unclear, but he might be the local magnate responsible for the feast (veizla). The arm-ring is perhaps mentioned pointedly, since such rings are associated not merely with personal affluence but also with ceremonies where pledges and oaths are taken (Olsen 1966, 48-9).

Close

orms ‘of the serpent’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

Njarðar orms alnar,
‘of the Njǫrðr of the serpent of the forearm, ’
   = MAN

the serpent of the forearm, → ARM-RING
the Njǫrðr of the ARM-RING → MAN

notes

[2-3] Njarðar orms alnar ‘of the Njǫrðr <god> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > MAN]’: (a) Previous eds retain ms. jarðar ‘of the earth’, the reading of all mss, and interpret it as part of an ofljóst expression for ‘fire’ (see Note to l. 2), while taking ǫðlingr orms alnar ‘prince of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN]’ together. However, ǫðlingr ‘prince’ normally stands alone rather than functioning as the base-word of a kenning. An alternative would be to read Jarðar orms alnar ‘of the Jǫrð <goddess> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > WOMAN]’. However, in either case retaining jarðar entails double alliteration in an even line, which is conventionally proscribed and scarcely to be paralleled in poetry before the late C12th (Poole 2007b, 173). (c) In this edn jarðar is therefore emended to Njarðar. Reduction of final -n in ǫlun and initial N- in Njarðar to single -n- could easily have arisen in transmission. The name Njǫrðr appears to have been especially prone to corruption by scribes; cf. Eyv Lv 2/1, where , F, and other mss have the erroneous norðr. The identity of the person referred to by the kenning remains unclear, but he might be the local magnate responsible for the feast (veizla). The arm-ring is perhaps mentioned pointedly, since such rings are associated not merely with personal affluence but also with ceremonies where pledges and oaths are taken (Olsen 1966, 48-9).

Close

orms ‘of the serpent’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

Njarðar orms alnar,
‘of the Njǫrðr of the serpent of the forearm, ’
   = MAN

the serpent of the forearm, → ARM-RING
the Njǫrðr of the ARM-RING → MAN

notes

[2-3] Njarðar orms alnar ‘of the Njǫrðr <god> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > MAN]’: (a) Previous eds retain ms. jarðar ‘of the earth’, the reading of all mss, and interpret it as part of an ofljóst expression for ‘fire’ (see Note to l. 2), while taking ǫðlingr orms alnar ‘prince of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > GENEROUS MAN]’ together. However, ǫðlingr ‘prince’ normally stands alone rather than functioning as the base-word of a kenning. An alternative would be to read Jarðar orms alnar ‘of the Jǫrð <goddess> of the serpent of the forearm [ARM-RING > WOMAN]’. However, in either case retaining jarðar entails double alliteration in an even line, which is conventionally proscribed and scarcely to be paralleled in poetry before the late C12th (Poole 2007b, 173). (c) In this edn jarðar is therefore emended to Njarðar. Reduction of final -n in ǫlun and initial N- in Njarðar to single -n- could easily have arisen in transmission. The name Njǫrðr appears to have been especially prone to corruption by scribes; cf. Eyv Lv 2/1, where , F, and other mss have the erroneous norðr. The identity of the person referred to by the kenning remains unclear, but he might be the local magnate responsible for the feast (veizla). The arm-ring is perhaps mentioned pointedly, since such rings are associated not merely with personal affluence but also with ceremonies where pledges and oaths are taken (Olsen 1966, 48-9).

Close

ófælinn ‘the unflinching’

ófælinn (adj.): [unflinching]

[4] ófælinn: of alinn Flat

Close

varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[4] varð: var J1ˣ, Bb, Flat

Close

lífs ‘of life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life

[5] lífs: so all others, líf Kˣ

Close

of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[5] of (‘um’): af Flat

Close

látir ‘’

Close

láti ‘’

Close

lattr ‘deprived’

letja (verb): deprive

[5] lattr: látr J1ˣ, ‘late’ FskBˣ, ‘later’ FskAˣ

Close

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[6] þars (‘þar er’): om. Flat, þá er FskBˣ, FskAˣ

Close

land ‘rulers’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < landreki (noun m.): land-ruler

[6] landrekar: lofðungar J1ˣ

notes

[6] landrekar ‘rulers of the land’: The Eiríkssynir or Gunnhildarsynir, sons of Eiríkr blóðøx and Queen Gunnhildr, to whom Hákon jarl owed tribute.

Close

lofðungar ‘’

Close

týrs ‘’

Close

rekar ‘of the land’

reki (noun m.; °-a; -ar): ruler < landreki (noun m.): land-ruler

[6] landrekar: lofðungar J1ˣ

notes

[6] landrekar ‘rulers of the land’: The Eiríkssynir or Gunnhildarsynir, sons of Eiríkr blóðøx and Queen Gunnhildr, to whom Hákon jarl owed tribute.

Close

otrung ‘’

Close

attning ‘’

Close

Týs ‘of Týr’

Týr (noun m.): Týr

[7] Týs: tyrs Bb, Flat

kennings

ôttung Týs
‘the kinsman of Týr ’
   = Sigurðr

the kinsman of Týr → Sigurðr
Close

ôttung ‘the kinsman’

1. áttungr (noun m.; °; -ar): kinsman

[7] ôttung: so 39, F, J2ˣ, J1ˣ, Bb, FskAˣ, ‘attung i’ Kˣ, ‘att(nin)g’(?) Flat, ‘otrung’ FskBˣ

kennings

ôttung Týs
‘the kinsman of Týr ’
   = Sigurðr

the kinsman of Týr → Sigurðr
Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[8] sviku ... í tryggð ‘deceived ... in the truce’: For a linkage between the drinking of ale and the gaining of safe-conduct, a truce or sanctuary, cf. Eyv Hák 16.

Close

tryggð ‘the truce’

tryggð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar): security, oath

[8] tryggð: trygg J1ˣ

notes

[8] sviku ... í tryggð ‘deceived ... in the truce’: For a linkage between the drinking of ale and the gaining of safe-conduct, a truce or sanctuary, cf. Eyv Hák 16.

Close

sviku ‘deceived’

svíkja (verb): betray, deceive

[8] sviku: svíkja Bb

notes

[8] sviku ... í tryggð ‘deceived ... in the truce’: For a linkage between the drinking of ale and the gaining of safe-conduct, a truce or sanctuary, cf. Eyv Hák 16.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for st. 9 in Hkr, ÓT, Fsk.

[5] of lattr lífs ‘deprived of life’: Cf. Þjóð Yt 12/3. — [7] ôttungr Týs ‘the kinsman of Týr <god> [= Sigurðr]’: The kenning echoes Þjóð Yt 14/3; and cf. Note to st. 7/7 above.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.