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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hál 9I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 207.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHáleygjatal
8910

sigrum ‘’

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Sigurð ‘Sigurðr’

Sigurðr (noun m.): Sigurðr

[1] Sigurð: sigrum Flat, Sigurðr R(20v), sigrað U(26r)

notes

[1] Sigurð ‘Sigurðr’: Acc. case, because object of næmðu ‘deprived’ in l. 6. The isolated reading of R, Sigurðr (nom.), probably derives from the wide separation of this noun from the verb that governs it, though Faulkes (SnE 1998, I, 156) suggests that ‘the nom. is perhaps explicable as anacoluthon (“It was S. whom…”)’.

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hinns ‘he who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] hinns: honum FskAˣ

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svǫnum ‘to the swans’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

[2] svǫnum: sonum FskBˣ

kennings

svǫnum farmatýs,
‘to the swans of the god of cargoes, ’
   = RAVENS

the god of cargoes, → Óðinn
to the swans of ÓÐINN → RAVENS
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hróka ‘of the cormorants’

2. hrókr (noun m.): cormorant

[3] hróka: hauka Flat, ‘hraka’ R(20v)

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
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hróka ‘of the cormorants’

2. hrókr (noun m.): cormorant

[3] hróka: hauka Flat, ‘hraka’ R(20v)

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
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bjór ‘beer’

1. bjórr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): beer

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD

notes

[3] bjór ‘beer’: The collocation of Haddingja (see Note to l. 4) with bjór ‘beer’ may suggest associations with an episode in Saxo’s Gesta Danorum: see Note to Yt 1/5-8. 

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handingja ‘’

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Haddingja ‘of the Haddingjar’

Haddingi (noun m.): [Haddingjar]

[4] Haddingja: ‘haddinga’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat, ‘handingia’ FskAˣ

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
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Haddingja ‘of the Haddingjar’

Haddingi (noun m.): [Haddingjar]

[4] Haddingja: ‘haddinga’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat, ‘handingia’ FskAˣ

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
Close

Haddingja ‘of the Haddingjar’

Haddingi (noun m.): [Haddingjar]

[4] Haddingja: ‘haddinga’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat, ‘handingia’ FskAˣ

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
Close

vals ‘of the chosen’

2. val (noun n.): choice

[4] vals: val Flat, om. U(26r)

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
Close

vals ‘of the chosen’

2. val (noun n.): choice

[4] vals: val Flat, om. U(26r)

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
Close

vals ‘of the chosen’

2. val (noun n.): choice

[4] vals: val Flat, om. U(26r)

kennings

bjór hróka vals Haddingja
‘beer of the cormorants of the chosen of the Haddingjar ’
   = BLOOD

the chosen of the Haddingjar → WARRIORS
the cormorants of WARRIORS → RAVENS/EAGLES
beer of RAVENS/EAGLES → BLOOD
Close

farma ‘of cargoes’

farmr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): cargo < farmatýr (noun m.)

[5] farma‑: frama Flat

kennings

svǫnum farmatýs,
‘to the swans of the god of cargoes, ’
   = RAVENS

the god of cargoes, → Óðinn
to the swans of ÓÐINN → RAVENS

notes

[5] farmatýs ‘of the god of cargoes [= Óðinn]’: As determinant of an Óðinn-kenning, farma ‘of cargoes’ may refer primarily to his hanging as a burden on the gallows (cf. Note to st. 1/7 above). The god may also be associated with commerce and shipping, though this is less certain than his association with journeys (see Notes to st. 1/11 above and Þul Óðins 2/4III). The second element could be the common noun týr ‘god’ or the god-name Týr, and it is presented as the latter in SnE: see Note to Eyv Hák 1/2 Gautatýr.

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farma ‘of cargoes’

farmr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): cargo < farmatýr (noun m.)

[5] farma‑: frama Flat

kennings

svǫnum farmatýs,
‘to the swans of the god of cargoes, ’
   = RAVENS

the god of cargoes, → Óðinn
to the swans of ÓÐINN → RAVENS

notes

[5] farmatýs ‘of the god of cargoes [= Óðinn]’: As determinant of an Óðinn-kenning, farma ‘of cargoes’ may refer primarily to his hanging as a burden on the gallows (cf. Note to st. 1/7 above). The god may also be associated with commerce and shipping, though this is less certain than his association with journeys (see Notes to st. 1/11 above and Þul Óðins 2/4III). The second element could be the common noun týr ‘god’ or the god-name Týr, and it is presented as the latter in SnE: see Note to Eyv Hák 1/2 Gautatýr.

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týs ‘of the god’

Týr (noun m.): Týr < farmatýr (noun m.)

[5] ‑týs: ‘tyr’ Flat

kennings

svǫnum farmatýs,
‘to the swans of the god of cargoes, ’
   = RAVENS

the god of cargoes, → Óðinn
to the swans of ÓÐINN → RAVENS
Close

týs ‘of the god’

Týr (noun m.): Týr < farmatýr (noun m.)

[5] ‑týs: ‘tyr’ Flat

kennings

svǫnum farmatýs,
‘to the swans of the god of cargoes, ’
   = RAVENS

the god of cargoes, → Óðinn
to the swans of ÓÐINN → RAVENS
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fjǫrvi ‘of life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

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næmndu ‘’

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næmði ‘’

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næmðu ‘deprived’

1. næma (verb): deprive

[6] næmðu: nômu J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘næmndo’ FskAˣ, næmði W(45), U(34v), W(108)

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jarðráðendr ‘the rulers of the land’

jarðráðandi (noun m.): land-ruler

[7] jarðráðendr: ‘iarþ rá þrændr’ R(20v), ‘iarþa ðrændr’ R(35v)

kennings

jarðráðendr
‘the rulers of the land ’
   = RULERS

the rulers of the land → RULERS
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á ‘at’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[8] á Ǫglói: ‘a ogloi’ 39, F, J1ˣ, Flat, FskAˣ, R(20v), R(35v), W(45), U(34v), W(108), ‘a agloe’ FskBˣ, ‘a gloe’ W(81), U(26r)

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aglói ‘’

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Ǫglói ‘Ǫgló’

Ǫgló (noun f.): Ǫgló

[8] á Ǫglói: ‘a ogloi’ 39, F, J1ˣ, Flat, FskAˣ, R(20v), R(35v), W(45), U(34v), W(108), ‘a agloe’ FskBˣ, ‘a gloe’ W(81), U(26r)

notes

[8] Ǫglói ‘Ǫgló’: The first element of the p. n. is obscure; the second element denotes a meadow flatland by a stretch of water (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XV, 1, 29, 66; cf. Rygh 1891, 246). The place was in the vicinity of Skatval (Rygh 1891, 246; cf. Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XV, 1, 29), east of Trondheim.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Stanzas 9 and 10 commemorate the death of Sigurðr jarl Hákonarson (c. 962) and are cited without interruption. In Hkr and ÓT, Sigurðr’s younger brother, Grjótgarðr (grandson of the Grjótgarðr alluded to in st. 8), is suborned by offers of friendship from Haraldr gráfeldr ‘Grey-cloak’ and his brother Erlingr Eiríksson and divulges that Sigurðr is on an itinerary of feasts (veizlur) with only a small entourage. They make their way to Ǫgló, where Sigurðr is staying, and burn down the hall, with the jarl and his following trapped inside. Hákon Sigurðarson then takes up the jarldom. Fsk cites the stanzas after briefly recording the slaying of Sigurðr jarl by the Eiríkssynir (Gunnhildarsynir). In SnE, st. 9 is cited to illustrate the Óðinn-kenning farma-Týr or farmatýr (see Note to l. 5 below) and ll. 5-8 are cited to illustrate the king-kenning jarðráðendr ‘rulers of the land’. In TGT, ll. 5-8 are quoted to exemplify kennings such as farma-Týr.

[4] vals Haddingja ‘of the chosen of the Haddingjar <legendary heroes> [WARRIORS]’: The Haddingjar are legendary, perhaps semi-divine, warrior-aristocrat figures in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish tradition (LP: Haddingi, Haddingjar, Haddingr), sometimes envisaged as a pair of brothers and connected with cultic practices (ARG II, 249, 253; Simek 1993, 127; and see Saxo 2005, I, 1, 8, 12, pp. 122-3). The majority interpretation of this line understands val as n. ‘choice, elite’, hence vals Haddingja is ‘the best of the Haddingjar’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; LP: Haddingjar; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). A further possibility preferred by Bjarni Einarsson (ÍF 29) is valr m. ‘the slain’, hence ‘the corpses of the Haddingjar’.

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