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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 61VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 61’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 632-3.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
606162

Öll ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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helvítis ‘of hell’

helvíti (noun n.): hell

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járn ‘the iron’

járn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon < járnhlið (noun n.)

notes

[1] járnhlið ‘iron gates’: The gates of hell are typically described as being made of brass, in reference to Ps. CVI.16 (quia contrivit portas aereas et vectes ferreos confregit ‘because he hath broken gates of brass, and burst iron bars’, cf. Isa. XLV.2). The only other occurrence of the word cited by dictionaries is the translation of Acts XII.10 in Postola Sögur (Unger 1874, 78); it also occurs in Oddur Gottskálksson’s translation of the same verse (Sigurður Nordal 1933).

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hlið ‘gates’

2. hlið (noun n.; °-s; -): gate < járnhlið (noun n.)

notes

[1] járnhlið ‘iron gates’: The gates of hell are typically described as being made of brass, in reference to Ps. CVI.16 (quia contrivit portas aereas et vectes ferreos confregit ‘because he hath broken gates of brass, and burst iron bars’, cf. Isa. XLV.2). The only other occurrence of the word cited by dictionaries is the translation of Acts XII.10 in Postola Sögur (Unger 1874, 78); it also occurs in Oddur Gottskálksson’s translation of the same verse (Sigurður Nordal 1933).

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undraz ‘is amazed’

undra (verb): be surprised, amazed

[2] undraz: óttaz 705ˣ

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er ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] er: að 99a, 622, 4892, enn 713, om. 705ˣ

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ljós ‘light’

ljós (noun n.; °ljóss; -): light

[2] ljós: ljósinn 622, 705ˣ

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er ‘is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[2] er: om. 622, 705ˣ, varð Vb, var 41 8°ˣ

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‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[4] að: om. 4892

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flaug ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

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er ‘whom’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] er: sem Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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fjötrar ‘fetters’

fjǫturr (noun m.): fetter

[6] fjötrar: fjötra 99a, 622, fjötrinn Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

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hlaut ‘was obliged’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

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óvinrinn ‘the enemy’

óvinr (noun m.): enemy

[7] óvinrinn: ormurin Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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laust ‘loose’

lauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without

[7] laust: lausa Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

notes

[7] laust ‘loose’: Here and in 81/1, the n. form of the adj. is used without respect to its object: lauss is normally declined so that there is congruence (JH). In 81/1, the poet uses the same idiom to pray that Christ never let him loose: the juxtaposition of the two statements recalls the paradox pointed out by S. Paul: by being freed from the bondage of sin, we become slaves of God (cf. Rom. VI.18-22).

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lamdr ‘lamed’

lemja (verb): beat, make lame

[8] lamdr: lamda 4892

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meiddr ‘injured’

meiða (verb): maim, wound

[8] meiddr: meidda 4892

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er ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[8] er: því 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892, sem 705ˣ

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valdið ‘might’

vald (noun n.; °-s; *-): strength, power

notes

[8] valdið ‘might’: Lit. ‘the might, the power’, a reference to God.

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beiddi ‘commanded’

beiða (verb; °-dd-): ask, request

[8] beiddi: beiddiz 99a, 4892, beidist Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Cf. the account of the Harrowing of Hell in Niðrst1, 4-6: þeir Satan rødoz viþ, at þeir heyra, er englar helger colloþo sva hat, at dynia þoti umb alt, oc melto sva: ‘Tollite portas, principes, vestras et elevamini porte eternales, et introibit rex glorie.’ Þa melto helvitis buar viþ Satan: ‘Far a braut nu or sætum varom; ef þu mat, þa berstu nu hart viþ dyrðar konongen. Ecki villdom ver viþ hann eiga’... Þa melte David...‘Lioter oc saurger, latet up hliþen, at rex glorie of comesc hingat’... Þa er David hafði þetta melt, þa kom konongr dyrþar at helvitis virki, hann braut þegar borg helvitis oc gørþ a hliþ miket. Hann havir vitraz i mannz asiono meþ liose miclo, svat myrcr helvites hafa þa horfit. Hverr goðr maðr hevir þa losnat or þvi bandi, sem bundinn var. Sva micell craptr oc gnyr hevir at gørzc viþ þat, er sva sciot reð (hann) um brotet helvite, at dioflar allir toco at falma oc at scialva ‘Satan and his companions talked with each other, saying that they heard holy angels call out so loudly, that it seemed to thunder everywhere, and they said: “Lift up your gates, princes, and let your eternal gates be raised, and the king of glory will come in”. Then the inhabitants of hell said to Satan: “Go away now from our homes; if you can, you should now fight hard against the king of glory. We do not want anything to do with him”... Then David said ... “Ugly and unclean ones, let the gates be opened up, so that the king of glory can come here” ... When David had said this, the king of glory came to the ramparts of hell, he broke the fortification of hell at once and made a big hole in it. He had revealed himself in the appearance of a man with great light, so that the darkness of hell had then retreated. Every good man had then been released from the bond with which he was bound. Such great force and such a din was created when he rode so quickly through the destroyed hell, that all the devils started to tremble and shake with fear’.

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