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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 47VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 47’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 617-18.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
464748

fækkar ‘’

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fættiz ‘grows smaller’

fæta (verb): diminish

[1] fættiz: fækkar 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, fætkar 622, 713

notes

[1] fættiz ‘grows smaller’: This form of the verb is necessary for the rhyme with þetta ‘this’. Fætta, fækta, and fækka are alternative forms of the same word (cf. smætta, smætka, smækka ‘to make small’). Christ’s healing miracles involve the driving out of demons, hence the diminution of Lucifer’s legions.

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fólkið ‘army’

folk (noun n.): people

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líz ‘it seems to him’

líta (verb): look, see; appear

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dæmin ‘examples’

dœmi (noun n.; °-s; -): judgement, example

[3] dæmin: en dæmin 99a, 705ˣ, að dæmin 41 8°ˣ

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góð ‘good’

góðr (adj.): good

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‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[3] að: þau 99a, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

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verri ‘worse’

verri (adj. comp.): worse, worst

[4] verri: enn verri Vb

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] og: so all others, en Bb

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lýtin ‘sins’

2. lýti (noun n.; °-s; -): fault, sin

[4] lýtin: lýti 622

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þverra ‘diminish’

1. þverra (verb): diminish

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Púkinn ‘The devil’

púki (noun m.; °-a): [devil]

[5] Púkinn: ‘Þyngdizt’ 622

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kvaldr ‘tormented’

kvelja (verb): torment, torture

[5] kvaldr: slægr 41 8°ˣ, kvaliðr 4892

notes

[5] kvaldr og ‘[is] tormented and’: Skj B deletes the pleonastic og and compensates by adding a svarabhakti vowel to ‘kvaldur’. JH comments that the Bb reading is to be preferred.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] og: om. Vb, 4892

notes

[5] kvaldr og ‘[is] tormented and’: Skj B deletes the pleonastic og and compensates by adding a svarabhakti vowel to ‘kvaldur’. JH comments that the Bb reading is to be preferred.

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þeygi ‘would accept’

þiggja (verb): receive, get

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þoldi ‘by no means’

þola (verb): suffer, endure

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þenna ‘this’

1. sjá (pron.; °gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir): this

[6] þenna: þennan 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[6] þenna leik, er kennir hafðan ‘this contest, which he recognises has been held’: Wisén (1886-9, II, 110) defends the reading of Bb and translates hunc lusus, quem peractum sentit ‘this game, which he senses has been completed’. The contest or game has been held or had, and the devil is unhappy with the results. Cf. Heggstad, Hødnebø and Simensen 1997: hafa 9, which cites the analogous idiom hafa þing ‘to hold a meeting’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) conflates several mss to arrive at the reading þenna leik, er harðan kennir ‘this game, the hardness of which he experiences’. Skald repeats this conflation.

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leik ‘contest’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play

notes

[6] þenna leik, er kennir hafðan ‘this contest, which he recognises has been held’: Wisén (1886-9, II, 110) defends the reading of Bb and translates hunc lusus, quem peractum sentit ‘this game, which he senses has been completed’. The contest or game has been held or had, and the devil is unhappy with the results. Cf. Heggstad, Hødnebø and Simensen 1997: hafa 9, which cites the analogous idiom hafa þing ‘to hold a meeting’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) conflates several mss to arrive at the reading þenna leik, er harðan kennir ‘this game, the hardness of which he experiences’. Skald repeats this conflation.

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er ‘which’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] er: að 713

notes

[6] þenna leik, er kennir hafðan ‘this contest, which he recognises has been held’: Wisén (1886-9, II, 110) defends the reading of Bb and translates hunc lusus, quem peractum sentit ‘this game, which he senses has been completed’. The contest or game has been held or had, and the devil is unhappy with the results. Cf. Heggstad, Hødnebø and Simensen 1997: hafa 9, which cites the analogous idiom hafa þing ‘to hold a meeting’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) conflates several mss to arrive at the reading þenna leik, er harðan kennir ‘this game, the hardness of which he experiences’. Skald repeats this conflation.

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hafðan ‘has been held’

hafa (verb): have

[6] hafðan: hafði 99a, höfðu 622, tók að Vb, 41 8°ˣ, harðan 705ˣ, tak að 4892

notes

[6] þenna leik, er kennir hafðan ‘this contest, which he recognises has been held’: Wisén (1886-9, II, 110) defends the reading of Bb and translates hunc lusus, quem peractum sentit ‘this game, which he senses has been completed’. The contest or game has been held or had, and the devil is unhappy with the results. Cf. Heggstad, Hødnebø and Simensen 1997: hafa 9, which cites the analogous idiom hafa þing ‘to hold a meeting’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) conflates several mss to arrive at the reading þenna leik, er harðan kennir ‘this game, the hardness of which he experiences’. Skald repeats this conflation.

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kennir ‘he recognises’

kenna (verb): know, teach

[6] kennir: kenndan 99a, slíkir 622, kenna Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

notes

[6] þenna leik, er kennir hafðan ‘this contest, which he recognises has been held’: Wisén (1886-9, II, 110) defends the reading of Bb and translates hunc lusus, quem peractum sentit ‘this game, which he senses has been completed’. The contest or game has been held or had, and the devil is unhappy with the results. Cf. Heggstad, Hødnebø and Simensen 1997: hafa 9, which cites the analogous idiom hafa þing ‘to hold a meeting’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) conflates several mss to arrive at the reading þenna leik, er harðan kennir ‘this game, the hardness of which he experiences’. Skald repeats this conflation.

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flýtandi ‘hastens [lit. hastening]’

flýta (verb): hasten

notes

[7] flýtandi ‘[and] hastens [lit. hastening]’: JH comments that this part. is best understood as a finite verb. Flýta normally takes a dat. object (cf. the variant reading sveitum).

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sínar ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[7] sínar: sínum 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

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sveitir ‘troops’

sveit (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): host, company

[7] sveitir: sveitum 99a, 622, Vb, 705ˣ, 4892

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synda ‘of sins’

synð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sin

kennings

brjót synda
‘the breaker of sins ’
   = God

the breaker of sins → God
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brjót ‘the breaker’

brjótr (noun m.): breaker

kennings

brjót synda
‘the breaker of sins ’
   = God

the breaker of sins → God
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skjótast ‘quickly’

2. skjótr (adj.): quick(ly)

[8] skjótast: fljótast Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

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