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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 28VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 28’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 595-6.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
272829

veik ‘he turned’

víkja (verb): turn

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Máría ‘Mary’

María (noun f.): Mary

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hlýð ‘listen’

2. hlýða (verb): hear, listen; be able

[2] hlýð: hlyði 720a VIII

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‘now’

nú (adv.): now

[2] nú: þú 99a, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

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várum ‘to our [my]’

várr (pron.; °f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir): our

[2] várum: ‘vorim’ 713

notes

[2] várum ‘our’: The form is necessary to provide a rhyme with Mária, but note that all mss read vorum. See Hreinn Benediktsson’s (1964) discussion of á / rhymes in early skaldic poetry.

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Frægast ‘Most glorious’

frægr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str): famous, renowned

[3] Frægast: frægasta 720a VIII, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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áve ‘a greeting’

ave: hail

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full ‘full’

2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete

notes

[4] full sætleiks brunna miskunnar ‘full of the sweetness of the fountains of mercy’: This is the reading of Bb, which alone has sætleiks brunna ‘of the sweetness of the fountains’, against the other mss’ full sætum brunni miskunnar ‘full of the sweet fountain of mercy’. (Fullr adj. in the sense ‘full [of]’ may take either the gen. or the dat.) Skj B and Skald prefer the majority reading, which is arguably superior to Bb’s, where brunna must be gen. pl. The Lat. epithet fons misericordiae was used of both Christ and Mary, though here it must refer to Christ. It occurs frequently in the works of Cistercians like Anselm of Canterbury, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Bernard of Clairvaux. See e.g. Anselm’s Oratio 5: O tu illa pie potens et potenter pia MARIA, de qua fons est ortus misericordiae ‘O piously powerful and powerfully pious Maria, from whom the fount of mercy sprang’ (Schmitt 1946-1961, III, 14, cf. also I, 107 and III, 49). Fons misericordiae is also used of Mary, especially in the later Middle Ages; see e.g. Ramon Llull (in Garí and Reboiras 2003, 138); the Soliloquium animae of Thomas ꜳ Kempis (in Pohl 1902-22, I, 329). It became a commonplace in Marian hymns from C13th onward. It occurs in Arngr Gd 9/2IV full hjartans brunni miskunnar ‘[Mary] full of the heart’s fountain of mercy’.

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miskunnar ‘of mercy’

miskunn (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): forgiveness, mercy, grace

[4] miskunnar: miskunn af 622, 713, 4892, miskunnar af Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[4] full sætleiks brunna miskunnar ‘full of the sweetness of the fountains of mercy’: This is the reading of Bb, which alone has sætleiks brunna ‘of the sweetness of the fountains’, against the other mss’ full sætum brunni miskunnar ‘full of the sweet fountain of mercy’. (Fullr adj. in the sense ‘full [of]’ may take either the gen. or the dat.) Skj B and Skald prefer the majority reading, which is arguably superior to Bb’s, where brunna must be gen. pl. The Lat. epithet fons misericordiae was used of both Christ and Mary, though here it must refer to Christ. It occurs frequently in the works of Cistercians like Anselm of Canterbury, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Bernard of Clairvaux. See e.g. Anselm’s Oratio 5: O tu illa pie potens et potenter pia MARIA, de qua fons est ortus misericordiae ‘O piously powerful and powerfully pious Maria, from whom the fount of mercy sprang’ (Schmitt 1946-1961, III, 14, cf. also I, 107 and III, 49). Fons misericordiae is also used of Mary, especially in the later Middle Ages; see e.g. Ramon Llull (in Garí and Reboiras 2003, 138); the Soliloquium animae of Thomas ꜳ Kempis (in Pohl 1902-22, I, 329). It became a commonplace in Marian hymns from C13th onward. It occurs in Arngr Gd 9/2IV full hjartans brunni miskunnar ‘[Mary] full of the heart’s fountain of mercy’.

Close

sæt ‘of the sweet’

sœtr (adj.): sweet < sœtleikr (noun m.): sweetness

[4] sætleiks: sætum 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[4] full sætleiks brunna miskunnar ‘full of the sweetness of the fountains of mercy’: This is the reading of Bb, which alone has sætleiks brunna ‘of the sweetness of the fountains’, against the other mss’ full sætum brunni miskunnar ‘full of the sweet fountain of mercy’. (Fullr adj. in the sense ‘full [of]’ may take either the gen. or the dat.) Skj B and Skald prefer the majority reading, which is arguably superior to Bb’s, where brunna must be gen. pl. The Lat. epithet fons misericordiae was used of both Christ and Mary, though here it must refer to Christ. It occurs frequently in the works of Cistercians like Anselm of Canterbury, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Bernard of Clairvaux. See e.g. Anselm’s Oratio 5: O tu illa pie potens et potenter pia MARIA, de qua fons est ortus misericordiae ‘O piously powerful and powerfully pious Maria, from whom the fount of mercy sprang’ (Schmitt 1946-1961, III, 14, cf. also I, 107 and III, 49). Fons misericordiae is also used of Mary, especially in the later Middle Ages; see e.g. Ramon Llull (in Garí and Reboiras 2003, 138); the Soliloquium animae of Thomas ꜳ Kempis (in Pohl 1902-22, I, 329). It became a commonplace in Marian hymns from C13th onward. It occurs in Arngr Gd 9/2IV full hjartans brunni miskunnar ‘[Mary] full of the heart’s fountain of mercy’.

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leiks ‘ness’

1. leikr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ar): sport, play < sœtleikr (noun m.): sweetness

[4] sætleiks: sætum 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[4] full sætleiks brunna miskunnar ‘full of the sweetness of the fountains of mercy’: This is the reading of Bb, which alone has sætleiks brunna ‘of the sweetness of the fountains’, against the other mss’ full sætum brunni miskunnar ‘full of the sweet fountain of mercy’. (Fullr adj. in the sense ‘full [of]’ may take either the gen. or the dat.) Skj B and Skald prefer the majority reading, which is arguably superior to Bb’s, where brunna must be gen. pl. The Lat. epithet fons misericordiae was used of both Christ and Mary, though here it must refer to Christ. It occurs frequently in the works of Cistercians like Anselm of Canterbury, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Bernard of Clairvaux. See e.g. Anselm’s Oratio 5: O tu illa pie potens et potenter pia MARIA, de qua fons est ortus misericordiae ‘O piously powerful and powerfully pious Maria, from whom the fount of mercy sprang’ (Schmitt 1946-1961, III, 14, cf. also I, 107 and III, 49). Fons misericordiae is also used of Mary, especially in the later Middle Ages; see e.g. Ramon Llull (in Garí and Reboiras 2003, 138); the Soliloquium animae of Thomas ꜳ Kempis (in Pohl 1902-22, I, 329). It became a commonplace in Marian hymns from C13th onward. It occurs in Arngr Gd 9/2IV full hjartans brunni miskunnar ‘[Mary] full of the heart’s fountain of mercy’.

Close

brunna ‘of the fountains’

brunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): spring, well

[4] brunna: brunni 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[4] full sætleiks brunna miskunnar ‘full of the sweetness of the fountains of mercy’: This is the reading of Bb, which alone has sætleiks brunna ‘of the sweetness of the fountains’, against the other mss’ full sætum brunni miskunnar ‘full of the sweet fountain of mercy’. (Fullr adj. in the sense ‘full [of]’ may take either the gen. or the dat.) Skj B and Skald prefer the majority reading, which is arguably superior to Bb’s, where brunna must be gen. pl. The Lat. epithet fons misericordiae was used of both Christ and Mary, though here it must refer to Christ. It occurs frequently in the works of Cistercians like Anselm of Canterbury, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Bernard of Clairvaux. See e.g. Anselm’s Oratio 5: O tu illa pie potens et potenter pia MARIA, de qua fons est ortus misericordiae ‘O piously powerful and powerfully pious Maria, from whom the fount of mercy sprang’ (Schmitt 1946-1961, III, 14, cf. also I, 107 and III, 49). Fons misericordiae is also used of Mary, especially in the later Middle Ages; see e.g. Ramon Llull (in Garí and Reboiras 2003, 138); the Soliloquium animae of Thomas ꜳ Kempis (in Pohl 1902-22, I, 329). It became a commonplace in Marian hymns from C13th onward. It occurs in Arngr Gd 9/2IV full hjartans brunni miskunnar ‘[Mary] full of the heart’s fountain of mercy’.

Close

Saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together < samangeypna (verb)saman (adv.): together < samangaupnandi (noun m.)saman (adv.): together

notes

[5] samangeypnandi sína skepnu ‘holding his creation together in his hands’: The spelling of the pres. part. is either in <ey> or <au>. See the Note on yfirspennanda heima þrennra ‘over-spanner of three worlds’ (23/4). The phrase here is not in the form of a kenning: sína skepnu, the object of the nomen agentis, is in the acc. rather than the gen. (cf. the analogous gen. constructions cited in the Note to 23/4).

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gúpnandi ‘’

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gaupnandi ‘’

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geypnandi ‘ in his hand’

geypnandi (adj.): holder in hand < samangeypna (verb)

[5] ‑geypnandi: ‑gaupnandi 99a, 705ˣ, 4892, ‑gúpnandi Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[5] samangeypnandi sína skepnu ‘holding his creation together in his hands’: The spelling of the pres. part. is either in <ey> or <au>. See the Note on yfirspennanda heima þrennra ‘over-spanner of three worlds’ (23/4). The phrase here is not in the form of a kenning: sína skepnu, the object of the nomen agentis, is in the acc. rather than the gen. (cf. the analogous gen. constructions cited in the Note to 23/4).

Close

sína ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[5] sína: sínar Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[5] samangeypnandi sína skepnu ‘holding his creation together in his hands’: The spelling of the pres. part. is either in <ey> or <au>. See the Note on yfirspennanda heima þrennra ‘over-spanner of three worlds’ (23/4). The phrase here is not in the form of a kenning: sína skepnu, the object of the nomen agentis, is in the acc. rather than the gen. (cf. the analogous gen. constructions cited in the Note to 23/4).

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skepnu ‘creation’

skepna (noun f.; °-u; -ur): creation

[5] skepnu: skepnur Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[5] samangeypnandi sína skepnu ‘holding his creation together in his hands’: The spelling of the pres. part. is either in <ey> or <au>. See the Note on yfirspennanda heima þrennra ‘over-spanner of three worlds’ (23/4). The phrase here is not in the form of a kenning: sína skepnu, the object of the nomen agentis, is in the acc. rather than the gen. (cf. the analogous gen. constructions cited in the Note to 23/4).

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sannr ‘The true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

kennings

Sannr höfðinginn eingla og manna,
‘The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding ’
   = God

The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding → God
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höfðinginn ‘chieftain’

hǫfðingi (noun m.; °-ja; -jar): chieftain

[6] höfðinginn: höfðingi 622

kennings

Sannr höfðinginn eingla og manna,
‘The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding ’
   = God

The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding → God
Close

eingla ‘of the angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

kennings

Sannr höfðinginn eingla og manna,
‘The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding ’
   = God

The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding → God
Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

Sannr höfðinginn eingla og manna,
‘The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding ’
   = God

The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding → God
Close

manna ‘men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

kennings

Sannr höfðinginn eingla og manna,
‘The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding ’
   = God

The true chieftain of the angels and men, holding → God
Close

skæru ‘pure’

1. skærr (adj.): pure, bright

[7] skæru: skæra 720a VIII

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blessuð ‘blessed’

blessa (verb): bless

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

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mær ‘maiden’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

Close

þú ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

Close

ert ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

Close

sprundum ‘women’

sprund (noun f.): woman

[8] sprundum: einglum Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

Close

hæri ‘higher’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[8] hæri: æðri 720a VIII, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[8] blessuð mær; þú ert sprundum hæri ‘blessed maiden; you are higher than [other] women’: An echo of Luke I.28: et ingressus angelus ad eam dixit ave gratia plena Dominus tecum benedicta tu in mulieribus ‘And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women’, also familiar from the popular prayer Ave, Maria.

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