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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 8I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 292.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
789

Mart ‘Many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

kennings

Mart él Ála
‘Many a storm of Áli ’
   = BATTLE

Many a storm of Áli → BATTLE
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varð ‘came about’

1. verða (verb): become, be

Close

él ‘a storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

[1] él: ek 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

Mart él Ála
‘Many a storm of Áli ’
   = BATTLE

Many a storm of Áli → BATTLE
Close

Ála ‘of Áli’

Áli (noun m.): Áli

kennings

Mart él Ála
‘Many a storm of Áli ’
   = BATTLE

Many a storm of Áli → BATTLE
Close

at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[2] at mun banda ‘at the will of the gods’: Here the skald represents the conquering of Norway as in line with the will of the gods (n. pl. bǫnd). Other instances in skaldic poetry (see Marold 1992, 705-7) indicate that these gods protect the land from evil or entrust it to rulers of whom they approve, cf. Tindr Hákdr 8/5-8, where the gods want Hákon to surpass all other rulers. It may be that the bǫnd are especially linked to the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade), cf. also st. 14/4 below and the stef ‘refrain’ of Bandadrápa, composed for Hákon jarl’s son Eiríkr, which confirms that Eiríkr rules the land at mun banda (Edáð Banddr 9/1).

Close

mun ‘the will’

munr (noun m.; °-ar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i): mind, pleasure

notes

[2] at mun banda ‘at the will of the gods’: Here the skald represents the conquering of Norway as in line with the will of the gods (n. pl. bǫnd). Other instances in skaldic poetry (see Marold 1992, 705-7) indicate that these gods protect the land from evil or entrust it to rulers of whom they approve, cf. Tindr Hákdr 8/5-8, where the gods want Hákon to surpass all other rulers. It may be that the bǫnd are especially linked to the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade), cf. also st. 14/4 below and the stef ‘refrain’ of Bandadrápa, composed for Hákon jarl’s son Eiríkr, which confirms that Eiríkr rules the land at mun banda (Edáð Banddr 9/1).

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banda ‘of the gods’

band (noun n.; °-s; *-): band, bond

[2] banda: branda J1ˣ, J2ˣ

notes

[2] at mun banda ‘at the will of the gods’: Here the skald represents the conquering of Norway as in line with the will of the gods (n. pl. bǫnd). Other instances in skaldic poetry (see Marold 1992, 705-7) indicate that these gods protect the land from evil or entrust it to rulers of whom they approve, cf. Tindr Hákdr 8/5-8, where the gods want Hákon to surpass all other rulers. It may be that the bǫnd are especially linked to the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade), cf. also st. 14/4 below and the stef ‘refrain’ of Bandadrápa, composed for Hákon jarl’s son Eiríkr, which confirms that Eiríkr rules the land at mun banda (Edáð Banddr 9/1).

Close

randar ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[3] randar: rauðar Bb

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
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randar ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[3] randar: rauðar Bb

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

lauks ‘of the leek’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

lauks ‘of the leek’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

af ‘by’

af (prep.): from

notes

[3] af ríki ‘by force’: The phrase could be construed with the main clause, but placing it in the subordinate clause, as here, gives good sense and the simplest word order (so also Vell 1865, 18; NN §396; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991).

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ríki ‘force’

ríki (noun n.; °-s; -): kingdom, power

notes

[3] af ríki ‘by force’: The phrase could be construed with the main clause, but placing it in the subordinate clause, as here, gives good sense and the simplest word order (so also Vell 1865, 18; NN §396; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991).

Close

rœki ‘the tending’

rœki (noun f.; °; -): [heeding, tending] < rœkilundr (noun m.)

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

lundr ‘tree’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree < rœkilundr (noun m.)

[4] ‑lundr: corrected from ‑sundr J2ˣ

kennings

rœkilundr lauks randar
‘the tending-tree of the leek of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the leek of the shield → SWORD
the tending-tree of the SWORD → WARRIOR
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See st. 6.

[1]: (a) Almost all interpreters, including the present ed., have accepted the division of the line Mart varð él, áðr, Ála ‘many a storm came about, before, of Áli’; cf. Reichardt (1928, 154-5). (b) Kock (NN §396, followed by Ohlmarks 1958, 366) suggests a simpler solution in which él ‘storm’ is translated as ‘battle’ and Ála collocates with austrlǫnd ‘the eastern lands’ in the following line as a kenning for Norway. But Ála must be the determinant of the battle-kenning, because él alone is not known to signify ‘battle’; see LP: él. The kenning austrlǫnd Ála is also unlikely (see Reichardt 1928, 154-5; Reichardt 1930, 241). (c) Kuhn (1929b, 201), also seeking to avoid a tripartite line, attaches Ála to lauks randar ‘leek of the shield’, the determinant of rœkilundr ‘tending tree’, but that similarly creates an overdetermined kenning while leaving él ‘battle’ without a determinant.

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