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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 7I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 291.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
678

Vasat ‘One did not have’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] Vasat (‘vara’): vant J1ˣ, J2ˣ, veit 61

notes

[1, 4] vasat at frýja ‘one did not have to taunt’: Frýja normally means ‘reproach’. Here it should be interpreted as ‘to taunt, to provoke’ (see LP: frýja).

Close

of ‘the strong’

of- ((prefix)): too much < ofbyrr (noun m.)

kennings

ofbyrjar ǫrva
‘the strong wind of arrows ’
   = BATTLE

the strong wind of arrows → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

byrjar ‘wind’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind < ofbyrr (noun m.)

kennings

ofbyrjar ǫrva
‘the strong wind of arrows ’
   = BATTLE

the strong wind of arrows → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

ǫrva ‘of arrows’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow

kennings

ofbyrjar ǫrva
‘the strong wind of arrows ’
   = BATTLE

the strong wind of arrows → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

odda ‘of weapon-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

drífu vífs odda.
‘the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points. ’
   = BATTLE

the woman of weapon-points. → VALKYRIE
the snow-storm of the VALKYRIE → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

odda ‘of weapon-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

drífu vífs odda.
‘the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points. ’
   = BATTLE

the woman of weapon-points. → VALKYRIE
the snow-storm of the VALKYRIE → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

nífs ‘’

Close

vífs ‘of the woman’

víf (noun n.): woman, wife

[2] vífs: ‘nífs’ 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

drífu vífs odda.
‘the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points. ’
   = BATTLE

the woman of weapon-points. → VALKYRIE
the snow-storm of the VALKYRIE → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

vífs ‘of the woman’

víf (noun n.): woman, wife

[2] vífs: ‘nífs’ 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

drífu vífs odda.
‘the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points. ’
   = BATTLE

the woman of weapon-points. → VALKYRIE
the snow-storm of the VALKYRIE → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

‘nor’

né (conj.): nor

[2] né: í 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394). — [2] ‘nor’: The mss of Hkr give adv. here, whereas those of ÓT have prep. í ‘in, into’. Both are possible. Changing the text from to í would seem simpler, so the lectio difficilior has been chosen here (likewise in ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991).

Close

‘nor’

né (conj.): nor

[2] né: í 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394). — [2] ‘nor’: The mss of Hkr give adv. here, whereas those of ÓT have prep. í ‘in, into’. Both are possible. Changing the text from to í would seem simpler, so the lectio difficilior has been chosen here (likewise in ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991).

Close

drífu ‘the snow-storm’

1. drífa (noun f.; °-u): snow-storm

kennings

drífu vífs odda.
‘the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points. ’
   = BATTLE

the woman of weapon-points. → VALKYRIE
the snow-storm of the VALKYRIE → BATTLE

notes

[1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394).

Close

sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverðri ‘’

Close

svǫrri ‘’

Close

sværi ‘’

Close

sverri ‘of the seething’

sverra (verb): swirl, seethe < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] sverri‑: ‘sværi‑’ 39, ‘svǫrri‑’ F, ‘sverþri‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, sund‑ 325IX 1 a, sund ok Bb

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverri ‘of the seething’

sverra (verb): swirl, seethe < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] sverri‑: ‘sværi‑’ 39, ‘svǫrri‑’ F, ‘sverþri‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, sund‑ 325IX 1 a, sund ok Bb

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

sverri ‘of the seething’

sverra (verb): swirl, seethe < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] sverri‑: ‘sværi‑’ 39, ‘svǫrri‑’ F, ‘sverþri‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, sund‑ 325IX 1 a, sund ok Bb

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

fjarðar ‘fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sundfjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] ‑fjarðar: ‘‑fiarþ(ar)’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

fjarðar ‘fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sundfjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] ‑fjarðar: ‘‑fiarþ(ar)’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

fjarðar ‘fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sverrifjǫrðr (noun m.)fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjordfjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord < sundfjǫrðr (noun m.)

[3] ‑fjarðar: ‘‑fiarþ(ar)’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swansvanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[4] svan‑: sval‑ F

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swansvanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[4] svan‑: sval‑ F

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

glýjaðri ‘’

Close

glýjaði ‘the delighter’

glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < svanglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < svalglýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[4] ‑glýjaði: ‘‑glyjaðri’ F, ‑glýjaðr J2ˣ

kennings

sverrifjarðar sverða svanglýjaði
‘the delighter of the swan of the seething fjord of swords [into joining] ’
   = WARRIOR

the seething fjord of swords [into joining] → BLOOD
the swan of the BLOOD → RAVEN/EAGLE
the delighter of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

at ‘to’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[4] at: á J2ˣ

notes

[1, 4] vasat at frýja ‘one did not have to taunt’: Frýja normally means ‘reproach’. Here it should be interpreted as ‘to taunt, to provoke’ (see LP: frýja).

Close

frýja ‘taunt’

2. frýja (verb): reproach, complain

[4] frýja: flýja Bb

notes

[1, 4] vasat at frýja ‘one did not have to taunt’: Frýja normally means ‘reproach’. Here it should be interpreted as ‘to taunt, to provoke’ (see LP: frýja).

Close

Brak ‘of the noise’

brak (noun n.): clash, noise < brakrǫgnir (noun m.)brak (noun n.): clash, noise < brak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noise < brak (noun n.): clash, noise

[5] Brak‑: ‘(br)ac‑’(?) 39, brag‑ F

kennings

Hjǫrs brak-Rǫgnir
‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the noise of the sword → BATTLE
The Rǫgnir of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Brak ‘of the noise’

brak (noun n.): clash, noise < brakrǫgnir (noun m.)brak (noun n.): clash, noise < brak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noisebrak (noun n.): clash, noise < brak (noun n.): clash, noise

[5] Brak‑: ‘(br)ac‑’(?) 39, brag‑ F

kennings

Hjǫrs brak-Rǫgnir
‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the noise of the sword → BATTLE
The Rǫgnir of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

raugna ‘’

Close

rǫknir ‘’

Close

Rǫgnir ‘The Rǫgnir’

Rǫgnir (noun m.): the Rǫgnir < brakrǫgnir (noun m.)Rǫgnir (noun m.): the Rǫgnir < bragrǫgnir (noun m.)

[5] ‑Rǫgnir: ‑reynir 39, F, ‑rǫknir J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‑rǫgnir corrected from ‘‑reignir’ W, ‘‑raugna’ U, ‑tognir 2368ˣ, 743ˣ

kennings

Hjǫrs brak-Rǫgnir
‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the noise of the sword → BATTLE
The Rǫgnir of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

skók ‘shook’

2. skaka (verb): shake

[5] skók: skaut R, skóg W, U, hjó 2368ˣ, 743ˣ

Close

bognum ‘’

Close

bogna ‘of bows’

bogna (verb; °-að-): [bows]

[5] bogna: boga 61, bognum W

kennings

hagl bogna
‘the hail of bows ’
   = ARROWS

the hail of bows → ARROWS
Close

óþyrmir ‘the crusher’

óþyrmir (noun m.): [crusher]

kennings

óþyrmir varga
‘the crusher of outlaws ’
   = RULER

the crusher of outlaws → RULER

notes

[6] óþyrmir varga ‘the crusher of outlaws [RULER]’: Óþyrmir is lit. ‘not-sparer’ (cf. þyrma ‘to spare, respect’). Varga here refers not to wolves but to criminals and robbers living outlawed in the forest like animals. This produces a kenning that refers to the ruler’s duty to ensure law and order in his realm. Cf. also ÞSjár Þórdr 2/1 myrðir varga ‘the killer of outlaws’. It is unnecessary to emend to ofþyrmir varga ‘the excessive sparer of wolves (i.e. their feeder) [WARRIOR]’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

varga ‘of outlaws’

vargr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wolf

[6] varga: varða Tˣ, W

kennings

óþyrmir varga
‘the crusher of outlaws ’
   = RULER

the crusher of outlaws → RULER

notes

[6] óþyrmir varga ‘the crusher of outlaws [RULER]’: Óþyrmir is lit. ‘not-sparer’ (cf. þyrma ‘to spare, respect’). Varga here refers not to wolves but to criminals and robbers living outlawed in the forest like animals. This produces a kenning that refers to the ruler’s duty to ensure law and order in his realm. Cf. also ÞSjár Þórdr 2/1 myrðir varga ‘the killer of outlaws’. It is unnecessary to emend to ofþyrmir varga ‘the excessive sparer of wolves (i.e. their feeder) [WARRIOR]’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B).

Close

hagl ‘the hail’

hagl (noun n.; °-s; dat. *-um): hail

[7] hagl: hagls R

kennings

hagl bogna
‘the hail of bows ’
   = ARROWS

the hail of bows → ARROWS
Close

ór ‘out of’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[7] ór: þat er A

Close

hlakka ‘’

Close

Hlakkar ‘of Hlǫkk’

2. Hlǫkk (noun f.): Hlǫkk

[7] Hlakkar: hlakka 61

kennings

segli Hlakkar;
‘the sail of Hlǫkk; ’
   = SHIELD

the sail of Hlǫkk; → SHIELD
Close

segli ‘the sail’

segl (noun n.; °-s; -): sail

[7] segli: so 61, seglum Kˣ, 39, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325IX 1 a, Bb, R, Tˣ, W, U, A

kennings

segli Hlakkar;
‘the sail of Hlǫkk; ’
   = SHIELD

the sail of Hlǫkk; → SHIELD

notes

[7] segli ‘the sail’: Although dat. sg. segli only appears in ms. 61 in place of dat. pl. seglum attested elsewhere, the sg. is chosen here, following most eds except CPB II, 44 and Vell 1865, 13, since it has to be assumed that a warrior carries only one shield.

Close

hjǫrs ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

Hjǫrs brak-Rǫgnir
‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the noise of the sword → BATTLE
The Rǫgnir of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

hjǫrs ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

Hjǫrs brak-Rǫgnir
‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the noise of the sword → BATTLE
The Rǫgnir of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

rakkliga ‘bravely’

rakkliga (adv.): [bravely]

Close

fjǫrvi ‘life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

For the Context in Hkr and ÓT, see st. 6. SnE cites ll. 5-8 among stanzas illustrating expressions for arrows. Lines 5-6 are cited in LaufE in the section on man-kennings (see Note below).

[5, 6]: In LaufE these lines are written as if they are part of Anon (LaufE) 6III (see Note).

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