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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 31I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 31’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 322.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
303132

rogna ‘’

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rǫgna ‘’

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ragna ‘of the gods’

rǫgn (noun n.): the gods (in names)

[2] ragna: rǫgna Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘rogna’ FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

konr ragna
‘the descendant of the gods ’
   = Hákon jarl

the descendant of the gods → Hákon jarl

notes

[2] ragna ‘of the gods’: All mss have rǫgna, the analogical gen. pl. form based on nom. pl. rǫgn, a variant of regin (ANG §362 Anm. 2). However, normalisation to the etymological form ragna is likely to be appropriate for a C10th text, and produces a more exact aðalhending here (Marold 1992, 709). — [2] konr ragna ‘the descendant of the gods [= Hákon jarl]’: It was presumably Hákon jarl’s policy to emphasise the divine lineage of his house; cf., e.g., Eyv Hál 1/5, 8. It can be doubted whether konr ragna can be interpreted as a kenning because in that case it would mean ‘god’. There is a similar kenning niðr Yggs ‘descendant of Yggr <= Óðinn>’ [= Hákon jarl] in st. 19/8 (see Note), but it differs from konr ragna in having an individual ancestor for the determinant, as do the kennings ôttungr Týs ‘descendant of Týr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 14/3) and ôttungr Freys ‘descendant of Freyr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 16/7), both denoting ‘Swedish king’. In any case konr ragna can be interpreted as an assertion of the divine descent of the ruler.

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ragna ‘of the gods’

rǫgn (noun n.): the gods (in names)

[2] ragna: rǫgna Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‘rogna’ FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

konr ragna
‘the descendant of the gods ’
   = Hákon jarl

the descendant of the gods → Hákon jarl

notes

[2] ragna ‘of the gods’: All mss have rǫgna, the analogical gen. pl. form based on nom. pl. rǫgn, a variant of regin (ANG §362 Anm. 2). However, normalisation to the etymological form ragna is likely to be appropriate for a C10th text, and produces a more exact aðalhending here (Marold 1992, 709). — [2] konr ragna ‘the descendant of the gods [= Hákon jarl]’: It was presumably Hákon jarl’s policy to emphasise the divine lineage of his house; cf., e.g., Eyv Hál 1/5, 8. It can be doubted whether konr ragna can be interpreted as a kenning because in that case it would mean ‘god’. There is a similar kenning niðr Yggs ‘descendant of Yggr <= Óðinn>’ [= Hákon jarl] in st. 19/8 (see Note), but it differs from konr ragna in having an individual ancestor for the determinant, as do the kennings ôttungr Týs ‘descendant of Týr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 14/3) and ôttungr Freys ‘descendant of Freyr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 16/7), both denoting ‘Swedish king’. In any case konr ragna can be interpreted as an assertion of the divine descent of the ruler.

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konr ‘the descendant’

konr (noun m.; °-ar): kind, descendant

kennings

konr ragna
‘the descendant of the gods ’
   = Hákon jarl

the descendant of the gods → Hákon jarl

notes

[2] konr ragna ‘the descendant of the gods [= Hákon jarl]’: It was presumably Hákon jarl’s policy to emphasise the divine lineage of his house; cf., e.g., Eyv Hál 1/5, 8. It can be doubted whether konr ragna can be interpreted as a kenning because in that case it would mean ‘god’. There is a similar kenning niðr Yggs ‘descendant of Yggr <= Óðinn>’ [= Hákon jarl] in st. 19/8 (see Note), but it differs from konr ragna in having an individual ancestor for the determinant, as do the kennings ôttungr Týs ‘descendant of Týr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 14/3) and ôttungr Freys ‘descendant of Freyr <god>’ (Þjóð Yt 16/7), both denoting ‘Swedish king’. In any case konr ragna can be interpreted as an assertion of the divine descent of the ruler.

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gagni ‘of victory’

1. gagn (noun n.): victory

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hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[3] hríðar: hirðar F, hildar FskAˣ

kennings

Ôss hríðar Fróða
‘The god of the storm of Fróði ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Fróði → BATTLE
The god of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3, 4] hríðar Fróða ‘of the storm of Fróði [BATTLE]’: Fróði is the name of several Danish legendary kings (see Notes to st. 17/2 and Þjóð Yt 1/2). It appears in some kennings as the name of a sea-king (Hár Lv 2/7; cf. LP: Fróði 1; Þul Sækonunga 1/1III).

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hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[3] hríðar: hirðar F, hildar FskAˣ

kennings

Ôss hríðar Fróða
‘The god of the storm of Fróði ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Fróði → BATTLE
The god of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3, 4] hríðar Fróða ‘of the storm of Fróði [BATTLE]’: Fróði is the name of several Danish legendary kings (see Notes to st. 17/2 and Þjóð Yt 1/2). It appears in some kennings as the name of a sea-king (Hár Lv 2/7; cf. LP: Fróði 1; Þul Sækonunga 1/1III).

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ôss ‘The god’

2. Áss (noun m.; °áss, dat. ási/ás; ásar): god

kennings

Ôss hríðar Fróða
‘The god of the storm of Fróði ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Fróði → BATTLE
The god of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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hrósa ‘boast’

hrósa (verb): praise

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haut ‘’

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hlaut ‘was allotted’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

[4] hlaut: ‘haut’ FskBˣ

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Óðinn ‘Óðinn’

Óðinn (noun m.): Óðinn

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Fróða ‘of Fróði’

Fróði (noun m.): Fróði

kennings

Ôss hríðar Fróða
‘The god of the storm of Fróði ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Fróði → BATTLE
The god of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3, 4] hríðar Fróða ‘of the storm of Fróði [BATTLE]’: Fróði is the name of several Danish legendary kings (see Notes to st. 17/2 and Þjóð Yt 1/2). It appears in some kennings as the name of a sea-king (Hár Lv 2/7; cf. LP: Fróði 1; Þul Sækonunga 1/1III).

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Fróða ‘of Fróði’

Fróði (noun m.): Fróði

kennings

Ôss hríðar Fróða
‘The god of the storm of Fróði ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Fróði → BATTLE
The god of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3, 4] hríðar Fróða ‘of the storm of Fróði [BATTLE]’: Fróði is the name of several Danish legendary kings (see Notes to st. 17/2 and Þjóð Yt 1/2). It appears in some kennings as the name of a sea-king (Hár Lv 2/7; cf. LP: Fróði 1; Þul Sækonunga 1/1III).

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jǫfra ‘of princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

jǫfra ættrýri?
‘kin-destroyer of princes’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

the kin of princes? → PRINCES
the destroyer of PRINCES → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[5-6] jǫfra ættrýri ‘the destroyer of the kin of princes [(lit. ‘kin-destroyer of princes’) PRINCES > RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Among the kennings for ‘king, ruler’ is a group which portrays the ruler as the oppressor or destroyer of hersar, jarlar, jǫfrar, harrar or hertogar (various ranks of chieftain or ruler). According to Meissner 359-60 these kennings stem from battles or confrontations with political opponents within a particular country’s hierarchy. By contrast Hkr 1991 interprets the kenning as konungs bani ‘regicide’, presumably with regard to the killing of Haraldr gráfeldr, though Hákon did not carry this out himself (similarly Vell 1865, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

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jǫfra ‘of princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

jǫfra ættrýri?
‘kin-destroyer of princes’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

the kin of princes? → PRINCES
the destroyer of PRINCES → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[5-6] jǫfra ættrýri ‘the destroyer of the kin of princes [(lit. ‘kin-destroyer of princes’) PRINCES > RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Among the kennings for ‘king, ruler’ is a group which portrays the ruler as the oppressor or destroyer of hersar, jarlar, jǫfrar, harrar or hertogar (various ranks of chieftain or ruler). According to Meissner 359-60 these kennings stem from battles or confrontations with political opponents within a particular country’s hierarchy. By contrast Hkr 1991 interprets the kenning as konungs bani ‘regicide’, presumably with regard to the killing of Haraldr gráfeldr, though Hákon did not carry this out himself (similarly Vell 1865, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

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ætt ‘of the kin’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family < ættrýrir (noun m.)

kennings

jǫfra ættrýri?
‘kin-destroyer of princes’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

the kin of princes? → PRINCES
the destroyer of PRINCES → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[5-6] jǫfra ættrýri ‘the destroyer of the kin of princes [(lit. ‘kin-destroyer of princes’) PRINCES > RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Among the kennings for ‘king, ruler’ is a group which portrays the ruler as the oppressor or destroyer of hersar, jarlar, jǫfrar, harrar or hertogar (various ranks of chieftain or ruler). According to Meissner 359-60 these kennings stem from battles or confrontations with political opponents within a particular country’s hierarchy. By contrast Hkr 1991 interprets the kenning as konungs bani ‘regicide’, presumably with regard to the killing of Haraldr gráfeldr, though Hákon did not carry this out himself (similarly Vell 1865, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

Close

ætt ‘of the kin’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family < ættrýrir (noun m.)

kennings

jǫfra ættrýri?
‘kin-destroyer of princes’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

the kin of princes? → PRINCES
the destroyer of PRINCES → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[5-6] jǫfra ættrýri ‘the destroyer of the kin of princes [(lit. ‘kin-destroyer of princes’) PRINCES > RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Among the kennings for ‘king, ruler’ is a group which portrays the ruler as the oppressor or destroyer of hersar, jarlar, jǫfrar, harrar or hertogar (various ranks of chieftain or ruler). According to Meissner 359-60 these kennings stem from battles or confrontations with political opponents within a particular country’s hierarchy. By contrast Hkr 1991 interprets the kenning as konungs bani ‘regicide’, presumably with regard to the killing of Haraldr gráfeldr, though Hákon did not carry this out himself (similarly Vell 1865, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

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rýri ‘the destroyer’

rýrir (noun m.): diminsher, destroyer < ættrýrir (noun m.)

kennings

jǫfra ættrýri?
‘kin-destroyer of princes’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

the kin of princes? → PRINCES
the destroyer of PRINCES → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[5-6] jǫfra ættrýri ‘the destroyer of the kin of princes [(lit. ‘kin-destroyer of princes’) PRINCES > RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Among the kennings for ‘king, ruler’ is a group which portrays the ruler as the oppressor or destroyer of hersar, jarlar, jǫfrar, harrar or hertogar (various ranks of chieftain or ruler). According to Meissner 359-60 these kennings stem from battles or confrontations with political opponents within a particular country’s hierarchy. By contrast Hkr 1991 interprets the kenning as konungs bani ‘regicide’, presumably with regard to the killing of Haraldr gráfeldr, though Hákon did not carry this out himself (similarly Vell 1865, 90; Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

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Ramm ‘powerful’

rammr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): mighty < rammaukinn (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[7, 8] rammaukin rǫgn ‘the exceedingly powerful gods’: The strict sense of rammaukin is ‘grown with respect to power’, i.e. made powerful. Possibly the phrase alludes to Hákon jarl’s reintroducing the heathen cult; cf. st. 14.

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aukin ‘the exceedingly’

1. auka (verb; °eykr; jók, jóku/juku): (str. intrans.) increase < rammaukinn (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[7, 8] rammaukin rǫgn ‘the exceedingly powerful gods’: The strict sense of rammaukin is ‘grown with respect to power’, i.e. made powerful. Possibly the phrase alludes to Hákon jarl’s reintroducing the heathen cult; cf. st. 14.

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kveðk ‘I declare’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[7] kveðk (‘qveþ æc’): kvað ek C

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ríki ‘the might’

ríki (noun n.; °-s; -): kingdom, power

[7] ríki: runnu J1ˣ

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rǫgn ‘gods’

rǫgn (noun n.): the gods (in names)

notes

[7, 8] rammaukin rǫgn ‘the exceedingly powerful gods’: The strict sense of rammaukin is ‘grown with respect to power’, i.e. made powerful. Possibly the phrase alludes to Hákon jarl’s reintroducing the heathen cult; cf. st. 14.

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magna ‘increase’

magna (verb): strengthen, increase

[8] magna: magni U

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 29. SnE (Skm) cites ll. 7-8 to illustrate how the gods can be called rǫgn.

[1-4]: Kock (NN §409) construes ôss hríðar Fróða ‘the god of the storm of Fróði <sea-king> [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’ in the subordinate clause in apposition to konr ragna ‘the descendant of the gods’ (l. 2) in order to simplify the syntactic structure of the helmingr. However, the main clause then lacks a subject (cf. Reichardt 1928, 113-14 n. 92). — [5-8]: Fidjestøl (1982, 187) regards these lines as the poem’s stef and compares it to that of Bandadrápa (Edáð Banddr 9).

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