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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 30I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 30’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 321.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
293031

Háði jarl, þars áðan
engi mannr und ranni,
hyrjar þing, at herja,
hjǫrlautar, kom Sǫrla.
Bara maðr lyngs enn lengra
loptvarðaðar barða
— allt vann gramr of gengit
Gautland — frá sæ randir.

Jarl háði {þing {hyrjar {hjǫrlautar}}}, þars engi mannr und {ranni Sǫrla} kom áðan at herja. Maðr bara randir {{lyngs barða} lopt}varðaðar enn lengra frá sæ; gramr vann allt Gautland of gengit.

The jarl held {an assembly {of the fire {of the sword-dale}}} [SHIELD > SWORD > BATTLE], where no man carrying {a house of Sǫrli <legendary hero>} [SHIELD] had come to harry before. No one carried shields, adorned with {the loft {of the whale of the heath}} [SNAKE > GOLD] any further from the sea; the ruler managed to march through all of Götaland.

Mss: (149r), F(24vb), J1ˣ(88r), J2ˣ(82v) (Hkr); 61(15va), 54(10va), Bb(20vb) (ÓT); FskBˣ(22r), FskAˣ(86) (Fsk); A(4r), W(102), B(2v) (TGT, ll. 1-2); 761aˣ(90v) (ll. 1-2)

Readings: [1] Háði: hafði W, 761aˣ;    jarl: om. J1ˣ;    þars (‘þar er’): var FskBˣ, þar FskAˣ    [2] engi: ‘eng(in)’(?) J1ˣ, ‘aungr’ 61;    mannr: mann F, 54, Bb, W, 761aˣ;    ranni: ský ranni 61, 54, Bb, ‘vanni’ B    [3] þing: so J1ˣ, 61, 54, Bb, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, þings Kˣ, F, J2ˣ    [4] ‑lautar: ‑lautr J1ˣ;    Sǫrla: sǫrva 61, gjǫrva 54, Bb    [5] Bara: bera 61, 54, Bb, barat FskAˣ;    maðr: mun 54, munn Bb, om. FskBˣ;    lyngs: ‘laungs’ 54, Bb;    enn: ins 54, Bb;    lengra: ‘leng(ra)’(?) J1ˣ    [6] lopt‑: láð‑ FskAˣ;    barða: garða FskBˣ, FskAˣ    [7] of: und F    [8] frá: fyr 54, Bb;    sæ: sjó FskBˣ, FskAˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 130, Skj BI, 123, Skald I, 69, NN §§303C, 318, 408, 1886, 2240A, 2246; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 304, IV, 83; ÍF 26, 261, Hkr 1991, I, 175 (ÓTHkr ch. 27), F 1871, 113; Fms 1, 132, Fms 12, 38, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 146-7 (ch. 71); Fsk 1902-3, 77-8 (ch. 15), ÍF 29, 119 (ch. 17); SnE 1848-87, II, 108-9, TGT 1884, 70, TGT 1927, 48, TGT 1998, 120-1.

Context: See Context to st. 29. TGT cites ll. 1-2 to illustrate iotacismus, which is the occurrence of j between two vowels, as in the stanza’s háði jarl. TGT classifies it as a form of barbarismus, an ugly combination of sounds (ofagra samansætning stafanna, TGT 1998, 118).

Notes: [2, 5] mannr; maðr ‘man’; ‘one’: Mannr (l. 2) forms an aðalhending with ranni ‘house’ and is stressed, while maðr (l. 5) is in unstressed position (in Bara maðr ‘No one carried’, lit. ‘One did not carry’). — [2, 4] und ranni Sǫrla ‘carrying a house of Sǫrli <legendary hero> [SHIELD]’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Fsk 1902-3; Skj B) places this phrase in the main clause, but this leads to a tripartition of l. 4 that can be avoided if it is placed in the subordinate clause. — [4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8. — [5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41). — [6] -varðaðar ‘adorned with’: This is the p. p. of varða ‘to guard’. The sense is assumed to have arisen via the meaning ‘to surround’ (LP: loptvarðaðr).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. TGT 1884 = Björn Magnússon Ólsen, ed. 1884. Den tredje og fjærde grammatiske afhandling i Snorres Edda tilligemed de grammatiske afhandlingers prolog og to andre tillæg. SUGNL 12. Copenhagen: Knudtzon.
  3. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  4. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  5. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  6. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  7. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  8. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  9. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  11. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  12. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  13. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  14. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  15. Fsk 1902-3 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1902-3. Fagrskinna: Nóregs kononga tal. SUGNL 30. Copenhagen: Møller.
  16. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  17. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  18. TGT 1927 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1927b. Óláfr Þórðarson: Málhljóða- og málskrúðsrit. Grammatisk-retorisk afhandling. Det kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Historisk-filologiske meddelelser 13, 2. Copenhagen: Høst.
  19. TGT 1998 = Krömmelbein, Thomas, ed. and trans. 1998. Dritte grammatische Abhandlung. Studia nordica 3. Oslo: Novus.
  20. Internal references
  21. Tarrin Wills 2017, ‘The Third Grammatical Treatise’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
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