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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 30I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 30’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 321.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
293031

Háði ‘held’

2. heyja (verb): fight, wage (battle)

[1] Háði: hafði W, 761aˣ

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jarl ‘The jarl’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

[1] jarl: om. J1ˣ

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[1] þars (‘þar er’): var FskBˣ, þar FskAˣ

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áðan ‘before’

áðan (adv.): before

Close

engi ‘no’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

[2] engi: ‘eng(in)’(?) J1ˣ, ‘aungr’ 61

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mannr ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[2] mannr: mann F, 54, Bb, W, 761aˣ

notes

[2, 5] mannr; maðr ‘man’; ‘one’: Mannr (l. 2) forms an aðalhending with ranni ‘house’ and is stressed, while maðr (l. 5) is in unstressed position (in Bara maðr ‘No one carried’, lit. ‘One did not carry’).

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vanni ‘’

Close

ranni ‘a house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall

[2] ranni: ský ranni 61, 54, Bb, ‘vanni’ B

kennings

ranni Sǫrla
‘a house of Sǫrli ’
   = SHIELD

a house of Sǫrli → SHIELD

notes

[2, 4] und ranni Sǫrla ‘carrying a house of Sǫrli <legendary hero> [SHIELD]’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Fsk 1902-3; Skj B) places this phrase in the main clause, but this leads to a tripartition of l. 4 that can be avoided if it is placed in the subordinate clause.

Close

hyrjar ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

hyrjar ‘of the fire’

hyrr (noun m.): fire

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

þing ‘an assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly

[3] þing: so J1ˣ, 61, 54, Bb, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, þings Kˣ, F, J2ˣ

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

hjǫr ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

hjǫr ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

hjǫr ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

lautr ‘’

Close

lautar ‘dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)

[4] ‑lautar: ‑lautr J1ˣ

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

lautar ‘dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)

[4] ‑lautar: ‑lautr J1ˣ

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

lautar ‘dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow < hjǫrlaut (noun f.)

[4] ‑lautar: ‑lautr J1ˣ

kennings

þing hyrjar hjǫrlautar,
‘an assembly of the fire of the sword-dale, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-dale, → SHIELD
the fire of the SHIELD → SWORD
an assembly of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[4] hjǫrlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’: See teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ in st. 29/8.

Close

gjǫrva ‘’

Close

Sǫrla ‘of Sǫrli’

Sǫrli (noun m.): Sǫrli

[4] Sǫrla: sǫrva 61, gjǫrva 54, Bb

kennings

ranni Sǫrla
‘a house of Sǫrli ’
   = SHIELD

a house of Sǫrli → SHIELD

notes

[2, 4] und ranni Sǫrla ‘carrying a house of Sǫrli <legendary hero> [SHIELD]’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901; Fsk 1902-3; Skj B) places this phrase in the main clause, but this leads to a tripartition of l. 4 that can be avoided if it is placed in the subordinate clause.

Close

Bara ‘carried’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[5] Bara: bera 61, 54, Bb, barat FskAˣ

Close

maðr ‘one’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[5] maðr: mun 54, munn Bb, om. FskBˣ

notes

[2, 5] mannr; maðr ‘man’; ‘one’: Mannr (l. 2) forms an aðalhending with ranni ‘house’ and is stressed, while maðr (l. 5) is in unstressed position (in Bara maðr ‘No one carried’, lit. ‘One did not carry’).

Close

lyngs ‘of the heath’

lyng (noun n.; °dat. -vi/-i; -): heather

[5] lyngs: ‘laungs’ 54, Bb

kennings

lyngs barða lopt
‘the loft of the whale of the heath ’
   = GOLD

the whale of the heath → SNAKE
the loft of the SNAKE → GOLD

notes

[5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41).

Close

lyngs ‘of the heath’

lyng (noun n.; °dat. -vi/-i; -): heather

[5] lyngs: ‘laungs’ 54, Bb

kennings

lyngs barða lopt
‘the loft of the whale of the heath ’
   = GOLD

the whale of the heath → SNAKE
the loft of the SNAKE → GOLD

notes

[5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41).

Close

enn ‘any’

2. enn (adv.): still, yet, again

[5] enn: ins 54, Bb

Close

lengra ‘further’

lengra (adv.): longer, further

[5] lengra: ‘leng(ra)’(?) J1ˣ

Close

lopt ‘the loft’

loft (noun n.): air, sky < loftvarðaðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[6] lopt‑: láð‑ FskAˣ

kennings

lyngs barða lopt
‘the loft of the whale of the heath ’
   = GOLD

the whale of the heath → SNAKE
the loft of the SNAKE → GOLD

notes

[5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41).

Close

varðaðar ‘adorned with’

2. varða (verb): defend < loftvarðaðr (adj./verb p.p.)2. varða (verb): defend < láðvǫrðuðr (noun m.)

notes

[6] -varðaðar ‘adorned with’: This is the p. p. of varða ‘to guard’. The sense is assumed to have arisen via the meaning ‘to surround’ (LP: loptvarðaðr).

Close

barða ‘of the whale’

barði (noun m.; °-a): whale

[6] barða: garða FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

lyngs barða lopt
‘the loft of the whale of the heath ’
   = GOLD

the whale of the heath → SNAKE
the loft of the SNAKE → GOLD

notes

[5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41).

Close

barða ‘of the whale’

barði (noun m.; °-a): whale

[6] barða: garða FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

lyngs barða lopt
‘the loft of the whale of the heath ’
   = GOLD

the whale of the heath → SNAKE
the loft of the SNAKE → GOLD

notes

[5, 6] lyngs barða lopt- ‘the loft of the whale of the heath [SNAKE > GOLD]’: Lopt denotes a bedroom on the upper floor (Fritzner: lopt 5) and may be considered a variation of ‘lair’; ‘lair of the snake’ is one of the most common patterns of gold-kenning (Meissner 237-41).

Close

allt ‘through all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

gramr ‘the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

Gautland ‘of Götaland’

Gautland (noun n.): [Götaland]

Close

frá ‘from’

frá (prep.): from

[8] frá: fyr 54, Bb

Close

‘the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[8] sæ: sjó FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 29. TGT cites ll. 1-2 to illustrate iotacismus, which is the occurrence of j between two vowels, as in the stanza’s háði jarl. TGT classifies it as a form of barbarismus, an ugly combination of sounds (ofagra samansætning stafanna, TGT 1998, 118).

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