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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 25I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 314.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
242526

auk ‘also’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[1] auk: ok J1ˣ, 61, 54, Bb

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[1] at: er F, J1ˣ, 61, 54, Bb

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eykir ‘the draught-animals’

eykr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -ir, dat. -jum): draught animal

kennings

eykir aurborðs
‘the draught-animals of the plank ’
   = SHIPS

the draught-animals of the plank → SHIPS

notes

[1-2] eykir aurborðs ‘the draught-animals of the plank [SHIPS]’: Aurborð is lit. ‘gravel plank’, i.e. one of the timbers low on the ship’s hull (see Notes to Ólhelg Lv 4/4, Þul Skipa 10/5III).

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aurborðs ‘of the plank’

aurborð (noun n.): ship-board

kennings

eykir aurborðs
‘the draught-animals of the plank ’
   = SHIPS

the draught-animals of the plank → SHIPS

notes

[1-2] eykir aurborðs ‘the draught-animals of the plank [SHIPS]’: Aurborð is lit. ‘gravel plank’, i.e. one of the timbers low on the ship’s hull (see Notes to Ólhelg Lv 4/4, Þul Skipa 10/5III).

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óurukt ‘’

Close

á ‘towards’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á vit: ‘(ó)urukt’(?) Bb

Close

vit ‘’

1. vit (noun n.; °-s; -): wisdom, wit; visit

[2] á vit: ‘(ó)urukt’(?) Bb

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

Close

und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[3] und: unz F

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sig ‘victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrunnr (noun m.): victory-tree

[3] sig‑: so Bb, sigr‑ Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 54

kennings

svinnum sigrunni
‘the wise victory-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

the wise victory-tree → WARRIOR
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runni ‘tree’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree < sigrunnr (noun m.): victory-treerunnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[3] ‑runni: ‑runnum F

kennings

svinnum sigrunni
‘the wise victory-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

the wise victory-tree → WARRIOR
Close

svinnum ‘the wise’

2. svinnr (adj.): wise

kennings

svinnum sigrunni
‘the wise victory-tree ’
   = WARRIOR

the wise victory-tree → WARRIOR
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sunnr ‘south’

sunnr (adv.): south

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fundnu ‘’

Close

runnu ‘ran’

2. renna (verb): run (strong)

[4] runnu: runnum F, funnu 61, 54, ‘fundno’ Bb

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Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] Ok: en J1ˣ, 61, enn 54, Bb

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hjolm ‘’

Close

holm ‘of the island’

holmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): island, islet < holmfjǫturr (noun m.): island-fetter

[5] holm‑: ‘hiolm‑’ Bb

kennings

holmfjǫturs,
‘of the island-fetter, ’
   = Miðgarðsormr

the island-fetter, → Miðgarðsormr

notes

[5, 6] faldinn hjalmi holmfjǫturs ‘wearing the helmet of the island-fetter [= Miðgarðsormr]’: (a) The explanation of this kenning lies in the notion that the Miðgarðsormr ‘World Serpent’ encircles the earth (SnE 2005, 27, 50); this mythical serpent then represents ‘serpent’ or ‘snake’ in general. A snake helmet is mentioned several times in connection with Norwegian rulers, as when Haraldr hárfagri is called holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’ (Þhorn Gldr 6/5, 6), cf. also SnSt Ht 15/1, 2III. The snake helmet appears to be connected with the œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’, which occurs both as a figure of speech and as an object attributed to the legendary dragon Fáfnir (Fáfn 16/1, 17/1).This connection is suggested by the use of œgir in reference to the Miðgarðsormr in Bragi Þórr 6/2III. Norwegian kings are said to wear the œgishjalmr in Arn Hryn 6/4II and in Egill Arkv 4/2V (Eg 100), where œgishjalmr is varied by ýgs hjalmr ‘helmet of terror’; cf. also Sturl Hryn 8/8II. Helmets on which snakes are depicted are known from the archaeological record, albeit from before the Viking period (Sutton Hoo, Vendel); see further Marold (1998a, 13‑17) on snake helmets and œgishjalmr as symbols of the ruler’s terrifying power. (b) A possible variant of this is to understand holmfjǫturs ‘island-fetter, serpent’ as Fáfnir himself. (c) A further alternative is to interpret holmfjǫturs as a standard sea-kenning (cf. Meissner 94), hence ægis ‘sea, ocean’ and, by ofljóst, œgis ‘terror’, hence œgishjalmr by a different route. Attractive though this is, it seems to be ruled out by the dissimilar vowels: æ (ae ligature) contrasting with œ (oe ligature).

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fjǫturs ‘fetter’

fjǫturr (noun m.): fetter < holmfjǫturr (noun m.): island-fetterfjǫturr (noun m.): fetter

kennings

holmfjǫturs,
‘of the island-fetter, ’
   = Miðgarðsormr

the island-fetter, → Miðgarðsormr

notes

[5, 6] faldinn hjalmi holmfjǫturs ‘wearing the helmet of the island-fetter [= Miðgarðsormr]’: (a) The explanation of this kenning lies in the notion that the Miðgarðsormr ‘World Serpent’ encircles the earth (SnE 2005, 27, 50); this mythical serpent then represents ‘serpent’ or ‘snake’ in general. A snake helmet is mentioned several times in connection with Norwegian rulers, as when Haraldr hárfagri is called holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’ (Þhorn Gldr 6/5, 6), cf. also SnSt Ht 15/1, 2III. The snake helmet appears to be connected with the œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’, which occurs both as a figure of speech and as an object attributed to the legendary dragon Fáfnir (Fáfn 16/1, 17/1).This connection is suggested by the use of œgir in reference to the Miðgarðsormr in Bragi Þórr 6/2III. Norwegian kings are said to wear the œgishjalmr in Arn Hryn 6/4II and in Egill Arkv 4/2V (Eg 100), where œgishjalmr is varied by ýgs hjalmr ‘helmet of terror’; cf. also Sturl Hryn 8/8II. Helmets on which snakes are depicted are known from the archaeological record, albeit from before the Viking period (Sutton Hoo, Vendel); see further Marold (1998a, 13‑17) on snake helmets and œgishjalmr as symbols of the ruler’s terrifying power. (b) A possible variant of this is to understand holmfjǫturs ‘island-fetter, serpent’ as Fáfnir himself. (c) A further alternative is to interpret holmfjǫturs as a standard sea-kenning (cf. Meissner 94), hence ægis ‘sea, ocean’ and, by ofljóst, œgis ‘terror’, hence œgishjalmr by a different route. Attractive though this is, it seems to be ruled out by the dissimilar vowels: æ (ae ligature) contrasting with œ (oe ligature).

Close

hilmir ‘’

Close

hjalmi ‘the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

[5] hjalmi: hilmir 54, Bb

notes

[5, 6] faldinn hjalmi holmfjǫturs ‘wearing the helmet of the island-fetter [= Miðgarðsormr]’: (a) The explanation of this kenning lies in the notion that the Miðgarðsormr ‘World Serpent’ encircles the earth (SnE 2005, 27, 50); this mythical serpent then represents ‘serpent’ or ‘snake’ in general. A snake helmet is mentioned several times in connection with Norwegian rulers, as when Haraldr hárfagri is called holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’ (Þhorn Gldr 6/5, 6), cf. also SnSt Ht 15/1, 2III. The snake helmet appears to be connected with the œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’, which occurs both as a figure of speech and as an object attributed to the legendary dragon Fáfnir (Fáfn 16/1, 17/1).This connection is suggested by the use of œgir in reference to the Miðgarðsormr in Bragi Þórr 6/2III. Norwegian kings are said to wear the œgishjalmr in Arn Hryn 6/4II and in Egill Arkv 4/2V (Eg 100), where œgishjalmr is varied by ýgs hjalmr ‘helmet of terror’; cf. also Sturl Hryn 8/8II. Helmets on which snakes are depicted are known from the archaeological record, albeit from before the Viking period (Sutton Hoo, Vendel); see further Marold (1998a, 13‑17) on snake helmets and œgishjalmr as symbols of the ruler’s terrifying power. (b) A possible variant of this is to understand holmfjǫturs ‘island-fetter, serpent’ as Fáfnir himself. (c) A further alternative is to interpret holmfjǫturs as a standard sea-kenning (cf. Meissner 94), hence ægis ‘sea, ocean’ and, by ofljóst, œgis ‘terror’, hence œgishjalmr by a different route. Attractive though this is, it seems to be ruled out by the dissimilar vowels: æ (ae ligature) contrasting with œ (oe ligature).

Close

Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

kennings

valdr Hǫrða,
‘the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl

the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl
Close

valdr ‘the ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

valdr Hǫrða,
‘the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl

the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl
Close

faldinn ‘wearing’

2. falda (verb): cover, clothe

[6] faldinn: fallinn J1ˣ

notes

[5, 6] faldinn hjalmi holmfjǫturs ‘wearing the helmet of the island-fetter [= Miðgarðsormr]’: (a) The explanation of this kenning lies in the notion that the Miðgarðsormr ‘World Serpent’ encircles the earth (SnE 2005, 27, 50); this mythical serpent then represents ‘serpent’ or ‘snake’ in general. A snake helmet is mentioned several times in connection with Norwegian rulers, as when Haraldr hárfagri is called holmreyðar hjalmtamiðr ‘used to the helmet of the island-salmon [SNAKE]’ (Þhorn Gldr 6/5, 6), cf. also SnSt Ht 15/1, 2III. The snake helmet appears to be connected with the œgishjalmr ‘helmet of terror’, which occurs both as a figure of speech and as an object attributed to the legendary dragon Fáfnir (Fáfn 16/1, 17/1).This connection is suggested by the use of œgir in reference to the Miðgarðsormr in Bragi Þórr 6/2III. Norwegian kings are said to wear the œgishjalmr in Arn Hryn 6/4II and in Egill Arkv 4/2V (Eg 100), where œgishjalmr is varied by ýgs hjalmr ‘helmet of terror’; cf. also Sturl Hryn 8/8II. Helmets on which snakes are depicted are known from the archaeological record, albeit from before the Viking period (Sutton Hoo, Vendel); see further Marold (1998a, 13‑17) on snake helmets and œgishjalmr as symbols of the ruler’s terrifying power. (b) A possible variant of this is to understand holmfjǫturs ‘island-fetter, serpent’ as Fáfnir himself. (c) A further alternative is to interpret holmfjǫturs as a standard sea-kenning (cf. Meissner 94), hence ægis ‘sea, ocean’ and, by ofljóst, œgis ‘terror’, hence œgishjalmr by a different route. Attractive though this is, it seems to be ruled out by the dissimilar vowels: æ (ae ligature) contrasting with œ (oe ligature).

Close

Dofra ‘of the Dofrar’

Dofrar (noun f.): Dofrar

kennings

dróttinn Dofra,
‘the lord of the Dofrar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl

the lord of the Dofrar, → NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[7] Dofra ‘of the Dofrar’: Dofrar refers to an area south of Dovrefjell, Oppland (LP: Dofrar) and possibly its inhabitants.

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danskra ‘with the Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

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dróttinn ‘the lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

dróttinn Dofra,
‘the lord of the Dofrar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl

the lord of the Dofrar, → NORWEGIAN RULER = Hákon jarl
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Emperor Otto II raises a great army of Saxons, Franks, Frisians and Wends, together with allies including Óláfr Tryggvason. The Danish king Haraldr blátǫnn ‘Blue-tooth’ sends Hákon jarl with his host to the Danavirki (Danevirke) to defend the border. Hkr and ÓT cite sts 25 and 26 without interruption.

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