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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 11I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 297.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
101112

grápi ‘hail’

gráp (noun n.): hail < hjalmgráp (noun n.)

[1] ‑grápi: ‑faldinn 61, ‑greip er 53, ‑gráp er 54, Bb

kennings

hjalmgrápi;
‘with helmet-hail; ’
   = BATTLE

with helmet-hail; → BATTLE
Close

harðr ‘The hardy’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[2] harðr: so F, 325VIII 1, harð Kˣ, J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb

Close

Lopts ‘of Loptr’

Loftr (noun m.): [Loptr, loft]

[2] Lopts: so J1ˣ, 325VIII 1, 61, 54, Bb, lopt Kˣ, F, lofs 53

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

Lopts ‘of Loptr’

Loftr (noun m.): [Loptr, loft]

[2] Lopts: so J1ˣ, 325VIII 1, 61, 54, Bb, lopt Kˣ, F, lofs 53

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

Lopts ‘of Loptr’

Loftr (noun m.): [Loptr, loft]

[2] Lopts: so J1ˣ, 325VIII 1, 61, 54, Bb, lopt Kˣ, F, lofs 53

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

vinar ‘of the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

vinar ‘of the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

vinar ‘of the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

Vínu ‘the Vína’

Vína (noun f.): [Dvina, Vína]

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

vín ‘of the wine’

vín (noun n.; °-s; -): wine < vínheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

vín ‘of the wine’

vín (noun n.; °-s; -): wine < vínheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

heims ‘world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < vínheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

heims ‘world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < vínheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts.
‘the Vína of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr. ’
   = POEM

the friend of Loptr. → Óðinn
the wine-world of ÓÐINN → VAT
the Vína of the VAT → POEM

notes

[2, 3, 4] Vínu vínheims vinar Lopts ‘the Vína <river> of the wine-world of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn > VAT > POEM]’: Vína is the Northern Dvina river, here standing for ‘river’ in general (LP: 1. Vína; Note to Þul Á 3/1III). Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) resolves the kenning convincingly and is followed by most later eds. This edn, with most others, interprets vínheimr ‘wine-world’ as referring to the vat in which the mead of poetry is stored (LP: vínheimr). Kock’s interpretation (NN §2513) as a hall in which wine is drunk is doubtful, because the kenning would not then mean ‘poem’ (cf. Kreutzer 1977, 108).

Close

Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] Ok: at J1ˣ, 325VIII 1, 61, 53, 54, Bb

notes

[5] ok ‘and’: The mss offer both ok ‘and’ and at ‘that’. (a) Ok is chosen here, since it is both the reading of the Kringla group mss including the main ms. and the reading that yields the most natural syntactic and semantic structure for the stanza as a whole. It produces a conventional statement that the hero of the poem causes it to swell, his great deeds supplying material for praise. (b) The variant at in the Jöfraskinna group mss and the mss of ÓT would introduce a subordinate clause in the second helmingr which is dependent on því in the first helmingr, giving ‘for this reason the poem grew … that the three sons of the jarl fell’; but it would be unusual to make such a claim about defeated enemies.

Close

for ‘exceedingly’

for- ((prefix)): exceedingly < forsnjallr (adj.)

notes

[5, 8] þrír forsnjallir synir jarls ‘three exceedingly brave sons of a jarl’: One of these is Grjótgarðr, the uncle of Hákon jarl and son of another Hákon; the others are unidentified (see ÍF 28, Ættaskrár V, for a genealogy of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade)).

Close

snjallir ‘brave’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold < forsnjallr (adj.)

notes

[5, 8] þrír forsnjallir synir jarls ‘three exceedingly brave sons of a jarl’: One of these is Grjótgarðr, the uncle of Hákon jarl and son of another Hákon; the others are unidentified (see ÍF 28, Ættaskrár V, for a genealogy of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade)).

Close

fellu ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

Close

fúrs ‘of the fire’

fúrr (noun m.): fire

kennings

skúrum fúrs Þróttar;
‘the showers of the fire of Þróttr; ’
   = BATTLE

the fire of Þróttr; → SWORD
the showers of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

fúrs ‘of the fire’

fúrr (noun m.): fire

kennings

skúrum fúrs Þróttar;
‘the showers of the fire of Þróttr; ’
   = BATTLE

the fire of Þróttr; → SWORD
the showers of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

Þróttar ‘of Þróttr’

þróttr (noun m.): strength, might, valour

[6] Þróttar: Þundar 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

skúrum fúrs Þróttar;
‘the showers of the fire of Þróttr; ’
   = BATTLE

the fire of Þróttr; → SWORD
the showers of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

Þróttar ‘of Þróttr’

þróttr (noun m.): strength, might, valour

[6] Þróttar: Þundar 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

skúrum fúrs Þróttar;
‘the showers of the fire of Þróttr; ’
   = BATTLE

the fire of Þróttr; → SWORD
the showers of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

skúrum ‘the showers’

1. skúr (noun f.; °; -ir): shower

kennings

skúrum fúrs Þróttar;
‘the showers of the fire of Þróttr; ’
   = BATTLE

the fire of Þróttr; → SWORD
the showers of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

þjóðar ‘of the people’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[7] þjóðar: þróttar 61, þjóstar 53, 54, Bb

kennings

snytri þjóðar
‘to the instructor of the people. ’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

to the instructor of the people. → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[7] snytri þjóðar ‘to the instructor of the people [RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Snytrir ‘instructor’, derived from snotr ‘wise’, must refer to the ruler. The sole other instance of the word is Þjóð Haustl 3/3III snytrir hapta ‘instructor of the divine powers’, a kenning for Óðinn.

Close

snytri ‘to the instructor’

snytrir (noun m.): teacher, instructor

[7] snytri: snyrti 54, Bb

kennings

snytri þjóðar
‘to the instructor of the people. ’
   = RULER = Hákon jarl

to the instructor of the people. → RULER = Hákon jarl

notes

[7] snytri þjóðar ‘to the instructor of the people [RULER = Hákon jarl]’: Snytrir ‘instructor’, derived from snotr ‘wise’, must refer to the ruler. The sole other instance of the word is Þjóð Haustl 3/3III snytrir hapta ‘instructor of the divine powers’, a kenning for Óðinn.

Close

þrír ‘three’

þrír (num. cardinal): three

notes

[5, 8] þrír forsnjallir synir jarls ‘three exceedingly brave sons of a jarl’: One of these is Grjótgarðr, the uncle of Hákon jarl and son of another Hákon; the others are unidentified (see ÍF 28, Ættaskrár V, for a genealogy of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade)).

Close

jarls ‘of a jarl’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

notes

[5, 8] þrír forsnjallir synir jarls ‘three exceedingly brave sons of a jarl’: One of these is Grjótgarðr, the uncle of Hákon jarl and son of another Hákon; the others are unidentified (see ÍF 28, Ættaskrár V, for a genealogy of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade)).

Close

synir ‘sons’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

[8] synir: ‘seynir’ F

notes

[5, 8] þrír forsnjallir synir jarls ‘three exceedingly brave sons of a jarl’: One of these is Grjótgarðr, the uncle of Hákon jarl and son of another Hákon; the others are unidentified (see ÍF 28, Ættaskrár V, for a genealogy of the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade)).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

King Haraldr gráfeldr ‘Grey-cloak’ and his brother Guðrøðr advance northwards to Þrándheimr (Trøndelag) with a large army. When Hákon jarl learns of this, he heads south to Mœrr (Sunn- or Nordmøre) with his own army and pillages there. Grjótgarðr, Hákon jarl’s uncle, has been charged with defending the region and calls up an army on the orders of Haraldr and Guðrøðr. The two armies fight and Grjótgarðr is killed.

[2]: The line is divided into three parts in almost all interpretations. Only Kock (NN §399) avoids the tripartition by conjoining vinar Lopts ‘of the friend of Loptr <= Loki> [= Óðinn]’ and hilmir ‘ruler’, but this sacrifices the determinant of vínheims ‘of the wine-world’ in the intercalary clause (cf. Reichardt 1930, 243-4). Subsequently Kock (NN §2242), following a suggestion of Meissner (Kock and Meissner 1931, I, 9), conjoins harðr ‘hardy’ with vǫxtr ‘growth’ from the intercalary clause. This also avoids the tripartition (cf. Frank 1978, 85), but harðr is semantically better suited to hilmir than vǫxtr. — [3]: This line lacks a skothending. Various attempts have been made to correct this through emendation. Jón Þorkelsson (1884, 46) suggests sýnisk ‘it appears’ in place of því kom ‘in this way came’, and Kock (NN §1884C) suggests Vixlu instead of Vínu. — [4]: The metre of the line dictates that fíandr be read as disyllabic.

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