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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 10I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 295.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
91011

Rignði ‘rained’

2. rigna (verb): rain

Close

hjǫrs ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

hjǫrs hríðremmis
‘storm-strengthener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of the sword → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] hjǫrs hríðremmis ‘of the strengthener of the storm of the sword [(lit. ‘storm-strengthener of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Hríðremmis is attested in all mss as a gen., so the warrior-kenning qualifies méilregni ‘arrow-rain [BATTLE]’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) placed the warrior-kenning in the intercalary clause instead, hence Þrimlundr hjǫrs hríðremmir of jók Þundi gnótt þegns ‘The battle-minded strengthener of the storm of the sword [BATTLE > WARRIOR] increased the abundance of retainers for Þundr <= Óðinn>’, which requires the emendation of -remmis to -remmir, contrary to all mss, and leads to a much more complicated syntax for the helmingr. Because þrimlundr as a nominalised adj. can take the subject position in the intercalary clause (Kock NN §398; Reichardt 1928, 200), the emendation is unnecessary. Finnur Jónsson later (1934a, 20) changed his view and the later view is followed by this edn.

Close

hjǫrs ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

hjǫrs hríðremmis
‘storm-strengthener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of the sword → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] hjǫrs hríðremmis ‘of the strengthener of the storm of the sword [(lit. ‘storm-strengthener of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Hríðremmis is attested in all mss as a gen., so the warrior-kenning qualifies méilregni ‘arrow-rain [BATTLE]’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) placed the warrior-kenning in the intercalary clause instead, hence Þrimlundr hjǫrs hríðremmir of jók Þundi gnótt þegns ‘The battle-minded strengthener of the storm of the sword [BATTLE > WARRIOR] increased the abundance of retainers for Þundr <= Óðinn>’, which requires the emendation of -remmis to -remmir, contrary to all mss, and leads to a much more complicated syntax for the helmingr. Because þrimlundr as a nominalised adj. can take the subject position in the intercalary clause (Kock NN §398; Reichardt 1928, 200), the emendation is unnecessary. Finnur Jónsson later (1934a, 20) changed his view and the later view is followed by this edn.

Close

hersa ‘of the hersar

hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan

notes

[1] hersa ‘of the hersar’: Hersar are district chieftains, noblemen of lesser rank than a jarl. Here the term seems to refer to the commanders serving the Eiríkssynir or Gunnhildarsynir (Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 110).

Close

hríð ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < hríðremmir (noun m.)hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[2] hríð‑: so all others, ‘h[...]rð‑’ Kˣ

kennings

hjǫrs hríðremmis
‘storm-strengthener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of the sword → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] hjǫrs hríðremmis ‘of the strengthener of the storm of the sword [(lit. ‘storm-strengthener of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Hríðremmis is attested in all mss as a gen., so the warrior-kenning qualifies méilregni ‘arrow-rain [BATTLE]’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) placed the warrior-kenning in the intercalary clause instead, hence Þrimlundr hjǫrs hríðremmir of jók Þundi gnótt þegns ‘The battle-minded strengthener of the storm of the sword [BATTLE > WARRIOR] increased the abundance of retainers for Þundr <= Óðinn>’, which requires the emendation of -remmis to -remmir, contrary to all mss, and leads to a much more complicated syntax for the helmingr. Because þrimlundr as a nominalised adj. can take the subject position in the intercalary clause (Kock NN §398; Reichardt 1928, 200), the emendation is unnecessary. Finnur Jónsson later (1934a, 20) changed his view and the later view is followed by this edn.

Close

hríð ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm < hríðremmir (noun m.)hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

[2] hríð‑: so all others, ‘h[...]rð‑’ Kˣ

kennings

hjǫrs hríðremmis
‘storm-strengthener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of the sword → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] hjǫrs hríðremmis ‘of the strengthener of the storm of the sword [(lit. ‘storm-strengthener of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Hríðremmis is attested in all mss as a gen., so the warrior-kenning qualifies méilregni ‘arrow-rain [BATTLE]’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) placed the warrior-kenning in the intercalary clause instead, hence Þrimlundr hjǫrs hríðremmir of jók Þundi gnótt þegns ‘The battle-minded strengthener of the storm of the sword [BATTLE > WARRIOR] increased the abundance of retainers for Þundr <= Óðinn>’, which requires the emendation of -remmis to -remmir, contrary to all mss, and leads to a much more complicated syntax for the helmingr. Because þrimlundr as a nominalised adj. can take the subject position in the intercalary clause (Kock NN §398; Reichardt 1928, 200), the emendation is unnecessary. Finnur Jónsson later (1934a, 20) changed his view and the later view is followed by this edn.

Close

remnis ‘’

Close

remmis ‘of the strengthener’

remmir (noun m.): strengthener < hríðremmir (noun m.)

[2] ‑remmis: ‘‑remnis’ J2ˣ

kennings

hjǫrs hríðremmis
‘storm-strengthener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of the sword → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] hjǫrs hríðremmis ‘of the strengthener of the storm of the sword [(lit. ‘storm-strengthener of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Hríðremmis is attested in all mss as a gen., so the warrior-kenning qualifies méilregni ‘arrow-rain [BATTLE]’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) placed the warrior-kenning in the intercalary clause instead, hence Þrimlundr hjǫrs hríðremmir of jók Þundi gnótt þegns ‘The battle-minded strengthener of the storm of the sword [BATTLE > WARRIOR] increased the abundance of retainers for Þundr <= Óðinn>’, which requires the emendation of -remmis to -remmir, contrary to all mss, and leads to a much more complicated syntax for the helmingr. Because þrimlundr as a nominalised adj. can take the subject position in the intercalary clause (Kock NN §398; Reichardt 1928, 200), the emendation is unnecessary. Finnur Jónsson later (1934a, 20) changed his view and the later view is followed by this edn.

Close

fjǫr ‘the life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

Close

þrim ‘the battle’

þrima (noun f.): battle, din < þrimlundr (adj.)

[3] þrim‑: þver‑ 39, F, þrym‑ 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

lunðar ‘’

Close

of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[3] of: ok J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

Þundi ‘for Þundr’

Þundr (noun m.): Þundr

Close

þegns ‘of retainers’

þegn (noun m.; °dat. -/-i; -ar): thane, man, franklin

[4] þegns: þegn 39, F, ‘þ(e)gns’(?) J1ˣ

Close

gnótt ‘the abundance’

gnótt (noun f.): abundance

[4] gnótt: gnótt ok 39, F

Close

méil ‘The arrow’

méil (noun n.): [arrow] < méilregn (noun n.)

[4] méil‑: men‑ F, mél‑ 61, meðal‑ Bb

kennings

Méilregni
‘The arrow-rain ’
   = BATTLE

The arrow-rain → BATTLE

notes

[4] méilregni ‘the arrow-rain [BATTLE]’: Méil occurs only here and in Hfr Hákdr 9/4III méilskúr ‘arrow-shower’. It is presumably of the same origin as mél ‘bit, mouth-piece of a bridle’. Exactly what the word means is not known; in combination with ‘rain/shower’ it is likely to mean a projectile weapon: arrow or spear (LP: méilregn; ÍF 26; on méil- cf. also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 110; Kristensen 1907, 235-6, 240). Because the verb rignði ‘it rained’ is impersonal, regni ‘rain’ appears as a dat. object.

Close

regni ‘rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < méilregn (noun n.)regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < mélregn (noun n.)regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < meðalregn (noun n.)regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < menregn (noun n.)

kennings

Méilregni
‘The arrow-rain ’
   = BATTLE

The arrow-rain → BATTLE

notes

[4] méilregni ‘the arrow-rain [BATTLE]’: Méil occurs only here and in Hfr Hákdr 9/4III méilskúr ‘arrow-shower’. It is presumably of the same origin as mél ‘bit, mouth-piece of a bridle’. Exactly what the word means is not known; in combination with ‘rain/shower’ it is likely to mean a projectile weapon: arrow or spear (LP: méilregn; ÍF 26; on méil- cf. also Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 110; Kristensen 1907, 235-6, 240). Because the verb rignði ‘it rained’ is impersonal, regni ‘rain’ appears as a dat. object.

Close

hald ‘the steering’

hald (noun n.; °-s; *-): support < haldviðurr (noun m.)

[5] hald‑: hjald‑ 61, haldinn‑ Bb

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

Viðurr ‘Viðurr’

Viðurr (noun m.): Viðurr < haldviðurr (noun m.)Viðurr (noun m.): Viðurr < hjaldviðurr (noun m.)Viðurr (noun m.): Viðurr

[5] Viðurr: rúnr Bb

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

haulda ‘of men’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

notes

[5] haulda ‘of men’: The ONorw. form haulda rather than OIcel. hǫlða is indicated by the rhyme on hald-. Although Einarr was an Icelander, he would have been familiar with the Norw. form through living at a Norwegian court. For hauldr see ANG §§105 Anm., 238.1b.

Close

haf ‘of sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea < haffaxi (noun m.)

[6] haf‑: hár‑ Bb

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

haf ‘of sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea < haffaxi (noun m.)

[6] haf‑: hár‑ Bb

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

faxa ‘horses’

faxi (noun m.): steed < haffaxi (noun m.)faxi (noun m.): steed < hárfaxi (noun m.)

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

faxa ‘horses’

faxi (noun m.): steed < haffaxi (noun m.)faxi (noun m.): steed < hárfaxi (noun m.)

kennings

hald-Viðurr haffaxa
‘the steering Viðurr of sea-horses ’
   = SEAFARER

sea-horses → SHIPS
the steering Viðurr of SHIPS → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 6] hald-Viðurr haffaxa ‘the steering Viðurr <= Óðinn> of sea-horses [SHIPS > SEAFARER]’: Hald- means ‘to steer’ here (cf., e.g., Sigv Nesv 2/5) and refers to the seafarer controlling the ships.

Close

lꜹpa ‘’

Close

Laufa ‘of Laufi’

Laufi (noun m.; °-a): Laufi

[7] Laufa: ‘lꜹpa’ 39, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

lífkǫld veðr Laufa
‘the life-cold storms of Laufi ’
   = BATTLES

the life-cold storms of Laufi → BATTLES
Close

veðr ‘storms’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

[7] veðr: veðrs Bb

kennings

lífkǫld veðr Laufa
‘the life-cold storms of Laufi ’
   = BATTLES

the life-cold storms of Laufi → BATTLES
Close

lífi ‘the life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life

[7] lífi: lífum 39, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb

Close

líf ‘the life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life < lífkaldr (adj.)

[8] líf‑: lið‑ 39

kennings

lífkǫld veðr Laufa
‘the life-cold storms of Laufi ’
   = BATTLES

the life-cold storms of Laufi → BATTLES

notes

[8] lífkǫld ‘life-cold’: I.e. inimical to life.

Close

kǫld ‘cold’

kaldr (adj.; °compar. -ari): cold < lífkaldr (adj.)kaldr (adj.; °compar. -ari): cold < liðkaldr (adj.)

kennings

lífkǫld veðr Laufa
‘the life-cold storms of Laufi ’
   = BATTLES

the life-cold storms of Laufi → BATTLES

notes

[8] lífkǫld ‘life-cold’: I.e. inimical to life.

Close

harlldz ‘’

Close

Hôars ‘of Hárr’

Háarr (noun m.): [Hárr, Hôarr]

[8] Hôars: ‘harlldz’ 325IX 1 a, Haralds Bb

kennings

drífu Hôars.
‘in the snow-storm of Hárr. ’
   = BATTLE

in the snow-storm of Hárr. → BATTLE

notes

[8] drífu Hôars ‘in the snow-storm of Hárr <= Óðinn> [BATTLE]’: Drífu can be acc., gen. or dat., and previous eds have construed the phrase in various ways. (a) It is understood here and in most eds as being a dat. of location, with the sense ‘in battle’. (b) If the battle is thought of as an equivalent to a period of time, drífu could be a temporal acc., hence ‘at/throughout the battle’ (cf. NS §98). (c) Fms 12 combined hǫlða and drífu Hôars into a kenning, ‘the men of the snow-storm of Hárr [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but hǫlðar cannot form a kenning with drífu Hôars because it is an independent term (so Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 112). (d) Konráð’s own suggestion of combining drífu Hôars with haffaxa ‘of sea-horses [SHIPS]’ to form a kenning for ‘battle at sea’ is unconvincing. (e) Kock (NN §2241) takes drífu Hôars in apposition to veðr Laufa ‘the weather of Laufi <sword> [BATTLE]’, but apposition involving kennings is rare at best.

Close

drífu ‘the snow-storm’

1. drífa (noun f.; °-u): snow-storm

kennings

drífu Hôars.
‘in the snow-storm of Hárr. ’
   = BATTLE

in the snow-storm of Hárr. → BATTLE

notes

[8] drífu Hôars ‘in the snow-storm of Hárr <= Óðinn> [BATTLE]’: Drífu can be acc., gen. or dat., and previous eds have construed the phrase in various ways. (a) It is understood here and in most eds as being a dat. of location, with the sense ‘in battle’. (b) If the battle is thought of as an equivalent to a period of time, drífu could be a temporal acc., hence ‘at/throughout the battle’ (cf. NS §98). (c) Fms 12 combined hǫlða and drífu Hôars into a kenning, ‘the men of the snow-storm of Hárr [BATTLE > WARRIORS]’, but hǫlðar cannot form a kenning with drífu Hôars because it is an independent term (so Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 112). (d) Konráð’s own suggestion of combining drífu Hôars with haffaxa ‘of sea-horses [SHIPS]’ to form a kenning for ‘battle at sea’ is unconvincing. (e) Kock (NN §2241) takes drífu Hôars in apposition to veðr Laufa ‘the weather of Laufi <sword> [BATTLE]’, but apposition involving kennings is rare at best.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See st. 9.

There is no intervening prose between sts 9 and 10, but 10/1-4 and 10/5-8 are thematically much more similar than sts 9 and 10/1-4 and are therefore given as a unitary stanza here and in most eds. In contrast, ÓT 1958-2000, Davidson 1983, 264-5, 170 and Hkr 1991 combine st. 9 and 10/1-4 into one stanza and let 10/5-8 stand as a single helmingr.

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