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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eil Þdr 19III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 117.

Eilífr GoðrúnarsonÞórsdrápa
181920

þás ‘when ’

þás (conj.): when

[1] þás (‘þa er’): því ek papp10ˣ

Close

hǫfði ‘head’

hǫfuð (noun n.; °-s; -): head

notes

[1, 2] of kom breiðu hǫfði ‘[he] placed the broad head’: I.e. he brought it down; for koma with a dat. object, see Fritzner: koma 1.

Close

Heiðreks ‘of the Heiðrekr’

Heiðrekr (noun m.): Heiðrekr

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2] Heiðreks ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king>’: Heiðrekr, the name of a legendary king, is the base-word of this giant-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 383). Some eds take this cpd as a common noun, heiðrekr ‘king of the high land, of the mountains’, and as a kenning for ‘giant’ (so Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 19; Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; LP: heiðrekr; Kiil 1956, 155). — [2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

Heiðreks ‘of the Heiðrekr’

Heiðrekr (noun m.): Heiðrekr

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2] Heiðreks ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king>’: Heiðrekr, the name of a legendary king, is the base-word of this giant-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 383). Some eds take this cpd as a common noun, heiðrekr ‘king of the high land, of the mountains’, and as a kenning for ‘giant’ (so Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 19; Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; LP: heiðrekr; Kiil 1956, 155). — [2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[2] of kom: kom of papp10ˣ

notes

[1, 2] of kom breiðu hǫfði ‘[he] placed the broad head’: I.e. he brought it down; for koma with a dat. object, see Fritzner: koma 1.

Close

kom ‘[he] brought’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[2] of kom: kom of papp10ˣ

notes

[1, 2] of kom breiðu hǫfði ‘[he] placed the broad head’: I.e. he brought it down; for koma with a dat. object, see Fritzner: koma 1.

Close

breiðu ‘the broad’

breiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): broad, wide

notes

[1, 2] of kom breiðu hǫfði ‘[he] placed the broad head’: I.e. he brought it down; for koma with a dat. object, see Fritzner: koma 1.

Close

und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

flet ‘of the bench’

flet (noun n.): platform, floor < fletbjǫrn (noun m.)

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

flet ‘of the bench’

flet (noun n.): platform, floor < fletbjǫrn (noun m.)

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

bjarnar ‘bear’

bjǫrn (noun m.; °bjarnar, dat. birni; birnir, acc. bjǫrnu): bear, Bjǫrn < fletbjǫrn (noun m.)

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

bjarnar ‘bear’

bjǫrn (noun m.; °bjarnar, dat. birni; birnir, acc. bjǫrnu): bear, Bjǫrn < fletbjǫrn (noun m.)

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

fornan ‘the old’

forn (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): ancient, old

[3] fornan: so all others, fornar R

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

fót ‘’

1. fótr (noun m.): foot, leg < fótleggr (noun m.): °ben (mellem knæ og ankel), læg, lægben, skinneben

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR
Close

legg ‘leg’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb < fótleggr (noun m.): °ben (mellem knæ og ankel), læg, lægben, skinneben

kennings

fornan fótlegg fletbjarnar.
‘the old leg of the bench-bear. ’
   = PILLAR

the bench-bear. → HOUSE
the old leg of the HOUSE → PILLAR

notes

[3-4] und fornan legg fletbjarnar ‘under the old leg of the bench-bear [HOUSE > PILLAR]’: This periphrasis is a nýgerving with the house-kenning ‘bench-bear’ as the determinant. Houses are sometimes referred to in kennings as animals (Meissner 430); in this case the base-word is ‘bear’, cf. fletvargr ‘bench-wolf’ (Anon (FoGT) 4/4). The resulting nýgerving means ‘pillar’, drawing on the analogy between an animal’s foot and the pillar of a house. The attributive adj. forn ‘old’ probably reflects the notion that giants were very old (Schulz 2004, 60-1; see Note to st. 15/7, 8 above); hence their age carried over to the objects associated with them.

Close

Þrasis ‘of Þrasir’

Þrasir (noun m.): [lover, Þrasir]

[4] Þrasis: so all others, ‘þvrnis’ R

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

Þrasis ‘of Þrasir’

Þrasir (noun m.): [lover, Þrasir]

[4] Þrasis: so all others, ‘þvrnis’ R

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

veggjar ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

veggjar ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

kennings

Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis
‘of the Heiðrekr of the wall of Þrasir ’
   = GIANT = Geirrøðr

the wall of Þrasir → STONE
the Heiðrekr of the STONE → GIANT = Geirrøðr

notes

[2, 4] Heiðreks veggjar Þrasis ‘of the Heiðrekr <legendary king> of the wall of Þrasir <dwarf> [STONE > GIANT]’: This giant-kenning follows the widespread pattern ‘ruler of the mountains’. The base-word is a pers. n., Heiðrekr, from heroic legend (cf. Meissner 258). The kenning ‘wall of Þrasir [STONE]’ is the determinant: because dwarfs live in mountain caves, their walls are made of stone. Þrasir is attested as a dwarf’s name in the þulur (Þul Dverga 4/8). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 398) assumes that Þrasir is an otherwise unattested name of a giant, and he combines it with hǫll ‘hall’ (l. 1). He adds veggjar to the kenning for ‘pillar’, where it is redundant (see Note to ll. 3-4 below).

Close

Ítr ‘The glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

kennings

Ítr gulli Ullar
‘The glorious stepfather of Ullr ’
   = Þórr

The glorious stepfather of Ullr → Þórr

notes

[5] ítr gulli Ullar ‘the glorious stepfather of Ullr <god> [= Þórr]’: Ullr was a North Germanic god who is mentioned only sporadically as a skiing and hunting archer (Gylf, SnE 2005, 26). According to Snorri (ibid.), Ullr was Þórr’s step-son, which accords well with the Þórr-kenning mágr Ullar ‘relative of Ullr’ (Þjóð Haustl 15/1, 2; EVald Þórr 3/4). Mágr is a relative by marriage, which indicates that Ullr, who was raised by Þórr, was the son of Þórr’s wife Sif and a different, unknown mythical figure.

Close

gulli ‘stepfather’

2. gulli (noun m.): stepfather(?)

kennings

Ítr gulli Ullar
‘The glorious stepfather of Ullr ’
   = Þórr

The glorious stepfather of Ullr → Þórr

notes

[5] ítr gulli Ullar ‘the glorious stepfather of Ullr <god> [= Þórr]’: Ullr was a North Germanic god who is mentioned only sporadically as a skiing and hunting archer (Gylf, SnE 2005, 26). According to Snorri (ibid.), Ullr was Þórr’s step-son, which accords well with the Þórr-kenning mágr Ullar ‘relative of Ullr’ (Þjóð Haustl 15/1, 2; EVald Þórr 3/4). Mágr is a relative by marriage, which indicates that Ullr, who was raised by Þórr, was the son of Þórr’s wife Sif and a different, unknown mythical figure.

Close

Ullar ‘of Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ítr gulli Ullar
‘The glorious stepfather of Ullr ’
   = Þórr

The glorious stepfather of Ullr → Þórr

notes

[5] ítr gulli Ullar ‘the glorious stepfather of Ullr <god> [= Þórr]’: Ullr was a North Germanic god who is mentioned only sporadically as a skiing and hunting archer (Gylf, SnE 2005, 26). According to Snorri (ibid.), Ullr was Þórr’s step-son, which accords well with the Þórr-kenning mágr Ullar ‘relative of Ullr’ (Þjóð Haustl 15/1, 2; EVald Þórr 3/4). Mágr is a relative by marriage, which indicates that Ullr, who was raised by Þórr, was the son of Þórr’s wife Sif and a different, unknown mythical figure.

Close

jótrs ‘of the molar’

jótr (noun m.): molar

[6] jótrs: jótr W, 2368ˣ

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

Close

jótrs ‘of the molar’

jótr (noun m.): molar

[6] jótrs: jótr W, 2368ˣ

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

Close

veg ‘of the way’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side < vegtaug (noun f.)

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

Close

veg ‘of the way’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side < vegtaug (noun f.)

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

Close

veg ‘of the way’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side < vegtaug (noun f.)

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

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taugar ‘of the fishing-line’

taug (noun f.; °dat. -u; -ir/-ar(Ridd623 28³⁰)): fishing-line, string < vegtaug (noun f.)

[6] ‑taugar: ‘‑tarigar’ 2368ˣ

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

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taugar ‘of the fishing-line’

taug (noun f.; °dat. -u; -ir/-ar(Ridd623 28³⁰)): fishing-line, string < vegtaug (noun f.)

[6] ‑taugar: ‘‑tarigar’ 2368ˣ

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

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taugar ‘of the fishing-line’

taug (noun f.; °dat. -u; -ir/-ar(Ridd623 28³⁰)): fishing-line, string < vegtaug (noun f.)

[6] ‑taugar: ‘‑tarigar’ 2368ˣ

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

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þrjóti ‘of the defier’

þrjótr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): obstinate one

kennings

þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar.
‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line. ’
   = GIANT

the way of the fishing-line. → SEA
the molar of the SEA → STONE
the defier of the STONE → GIANT

notes

[6] þrjóti jótrs vegtaugar ‘of the defier of the molar of the way of the fishing-line [SEA > STONE > GIANT]’: Þrjótr denotes a rebellious or defiant opponent; cf. þrjótr urðar ‘lout of the stones’ (st. 6/7 above). The determinant of the giant-kenning here is also ‘stone’ – the kenning ‘molar of the sea’. Teeth and bones are often used as base-words of stone-kennings determined by words for ‘earth’ or ‘sea’ (Meissner 89-90). ‘Sea’ in this kenning is paraphrased in yet another kenning, ‘way of the fishing-line’. It is necessary to reorder the elements of the stone-kenning jótrs vegtaugar (lit. ‘the molar of the way-fishing-line’) to taugar vegjótrs ‘the molar of the way of the fishing-line’ (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Skj B; LP: vegtaug; Reichardt 1948, 385; as a gen. construction jótr veg(s) taugar in NN §2008).

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meina ‘of harm’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury

[7] meina: nema 2368ˣ

kennings

nestum meina
‘the provisions of harm ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the provisions of harm → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[7, 8] nestum meina ‘the provisions of harm [PIECE OF IRON]’: In the mss, the stanza ends with (normalised) nestu. Because the previous stanzas consistently described the projectile thrown by Geirrøðr and Þórr through metaphors of eating and drinking (segi ‘shred’ st. 16/6, rauðbiti ‘red bite’ st. 17/2, lyptisylg ‘raised drink’ st. 18/3), it is natural to look for a kenning from the domain of food here as well, and nest n. or nesti n. ‘provisions for a journey’ is an obvious candidate for the base-word in such a kenning. That base-word must be in the dat. case, however, which forces emendation to nestum dat. pl. (adopted in the present edn) or nesti dat. sg. Interpreting nestum as ‘provisions’ combined with the determinant meina ‘of harm’ brings this kenning in line with the kennings used for the iron projectile in the previous stanzas. Previous eds have taken nestu as an oblique case of an otherwise unattested noun *nesta from nist, nisti ‘needle in a brooch, fibula’. This allows them to construe the kenning nestu meina ‘needle of harm’ for a red-hot iron bar that Þórr allegedly hurls at Geirrøðr (so Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 25; Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Reichardt 1948, 385; Kiil 1956, 157; Clunies Ross 1981, 383). However, this interpretation finds no support in the prose narrative of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which only mentions a járnsía ‘iron spark’, and it is also out of keeping with the metaphors in the previous stanzas.

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mest ‘with full force’

meiri (adj. comp.; °meiran; superl. mestr): more, most

[8] mest: so 2368ˣ, ‘mez’ R, Tˣ, W

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‘’

bí (noun n.; °; bý): bee < bígyrðill (noun m.)

notes

[8] bígyrðil ‘of the girdle’: The second element of this cpd is gyrðill m. ‘girdle, belt’, but the first element is obscure. Some scholars explain the cpd as an old formation with the adv. ‘at’, which is improbable because that adv. belongs to a set of prefixes that were lost in the North Germanic languages during the period of syncope. Although words with this prefix do appear in dictionaries, such compounds are usually late and show influence from German, which is not likely to have obtained in Eilífr’s time. Most likely, bígyrðill goes back to a cpd whose first element we do not recognise.

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gyrðil ‘of the girdle’

gyrðill (noun m.): [girdle] < bígyrðill (noun m.)

notes

[8] bígyrðil ‘of the girdle’: The second element of this cpd is gyrðill m. ‘girdle, belt’, but the first element is obscure. Some scholars explain the cpd as an old formation with the adv. ‘at’, which is improbable because that adv. belongs to a set of prefixes that were lost in the North Germanic languages during the period of syncope. Although words with this prefix do appear in dictionaries, such compounds are usually late and show influence from German, which is not likely to have obtained in Eilífr’s time. Most likely, bígyrðill goes back to a cpd whose first element we do not recognise.

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nestum ‘the provisions’

nest (noun n.; °-s): provisions

[8] nestum: ‘nezv’ R, W, ‘nezo’ Tˣ, nestu 2368ˣ

kennings

nestum meina
‘the provisions of harm ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the provisions of harm → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[7, 8] nestum meina ‘the provisions of harm [PIECE OF IRON]’: In the mss, the stanza ends with (normalised) nestu. Because the previous stanzas consistently described the projectile thrown by Geirrøðr and Þórr through metaphors of eating and drinking (segi ‘shred’ st. 16/6, rauðbiti ‘red bite’ st. 17/2, lyptisylg ‘raised drink’ st. 18/3), it is natural to look for a kenning from the domain of food here as well, and nest n. or nesti n. ‘provisions for a journey’ is an obvious candidate for the base-word in such a kenning. That base-word must be in the dat. case, however, which forces emendation to nestum dat. pl. (adopted in the present edn) or nesti dat. sg. Interpreting nestum as ‘provisions’ combined with the determinant meina ‘of harm’ brings this kenning in line with the kennings used for the iron projectile in the previous stanzas. Previous eds have taken nestu as an oblique case of an otherwise unattested noun *nesta from nist, nisti ‘needle in a brooch, fibula’. This allows them to construe the kenning nestu meina ‘needle of harm’ for a red-hot iron bar that Þórr allegedly hurls at Geirrøðr (so Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 25; Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398; Reichardt 1948, 385; Kiil 1956, 157; Clunies Ross 1981, 383). However, this interpretation finds no support in the prose narrative of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which only mentions a járnsía ‘iron spark’, and it is also out of keeping with the metaphors in the previous stanzas.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 1. Further, the stanza is cited in LaufE (ll. 1-4 in papp10ˣ and 743ˣ, ll. 1-8 in 2368ˣ) as an example for house-kennings which have an animal as base-word.

[1-4]: The subordinate clause introduced by þás ‘when’ (l. 1) has a suppressed subject in the sg., but the situation implies that this is Þórr (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 398). Kock (NN §2253) avoids this by taking þrasir veggjar ‘the furious one of the wedge [= Þórr]’ as a subject. However, that interpretation forces the emendation of þrasis gen. (so all mss except R) to þrasir nom. and an unattested meaning ‘wedge’ of ON veggr ‘wall’.

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