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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eil Þdr 17III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 17’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 113.

Eilífr GoðrúnarsonÞórsdrápa
161718

Þrøngvir ‘The oppressor’

þrøngvir (noun m.): forcer

[1] Þrøngvir: ‘Þraungir’ Tˣ, ‘Þrongvm’ W, ‘þreyngvir’ U

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr
Close

gein ‘gaped’

1. gína (verb): gape

[1] gein: ‘g(æi)r’(?) W

Close

þungum ‘the heavy’

þungr (adj.): heavy

kennings

þungum rauðbita þangs tangar,
‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[1-2] þungum rauðbita þangs tangar ‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’: Here the metaphorical analogy between a glowing piece of iron and food is carried over from the previous stanza. The base-word of the kenning for ‘piece of iron’, þang, falls into the category of things edible, since seaweed (sǫl n. pl. ‘red algae’, Palmaria palmate) was a source of sustenance (cf. Foote and Wilson 1970, 149; Davidson 1983, 645). See Grg Ib, 94, where it is stated that a man has the right to eat seaweed on another’s land; or the episode in Egils saga (Eg ch. 78, ÍF 2, 244-5) in which Egill’s daughter persuades her father to chew on seaweed. Furthermore, such words as sǫlvakaup n. ‘seaweed purchase’, sǫlvaponta f. ‘seaweed container’ and þangskurðr m. ‘seaweed collecting’ show that seaweed was collected and traded (see Heizmann 1993, 59-60, 65). Þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs’ is thus modelled on the same pattern as afli soðnum sega tangar ‘a hearth-boiled morsel of tongs’ (st. 16/6, 7), and the metaphor also extends into the following stanzas with lyptisylg síu ‘raised drink of the spark’ (st. 18/3, 4) and nestum meina ‘provisions of harm’ (st. 19/7, 8). Rauðbita ‘the red bite’ cannot be integrated into the kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’, but it does connect the two domains of the metaphorical comparison with ‘red’ for the glowing iron and ‘bite’ for the domain of eating. The verb gein ‘he bit at’ belongs to the latter as well (cf. gin ‘mouth’, st. 16/8). The kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’ itself belongs to both, the literal and the metaphorical levels – iron (tǫng ‘tong’) and eating (þǫng ‘seaweed’). The present interpretation is preferable to previous explanations of þangs, because it allows semantic and structural parallels to be drawn to the other kennings that paraphrase this iron projectile. Reichardt (1948, 381) understands þangs ‘of the seaweed’ as a variation on reyr ‘reed’, vǫndr ‘twig’ etc. and he combines it with tangar ‘of tongs’. This results in a kenning for an iron staff allegedly cast at Þórr, which is corroborated neither by the poem nor by the prose of Skm. Finnur Jónsson offers two different explanations for þang tangar in LP: 1. ‘seaweed of the blacksmith’s tongs’, i.e. the glowing chunk of iron (LP: þang), 2. ‘stem of seaweed gripped by tongs’ (LP: tǫng). Kock (NN §2251) reconstructs a word *þvang ‘narrowing, throat’ which he uses to translate rauðbiti þvangs þangar as tångklämmans (tångkäftens, tångsvaljets) röda bit ‘red bite of the trap of tongs (of the mouth of tongs, the throat of tongs)’.

Close

þangs ‘of the seaweed’

þang (noun n.; °-s): seaweed, kelp

kennings

þungum rauðbita þangs tangar,
‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[1-2] þungum rauðbita þangs tangar ‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’: Here the metaphorical analogy between a glowing piece of iron and food is carried over from the previous stanza. The base-word of the kenning for ‘piece of iron’, þang, falls into the category of things edible, since seaweed (sǫl n. pl. ‘red algae’, Palmaria palmate) was a source of sustenance (cf. Foote and Wilson 1970, 149; Davidson 1983, 645). See Grg Ib, 94, where it is stated that a man has the right to eat seaweed on another’s land; or the episode in Egils saga (Eg ch. 78, ÍF 2, 244-5) in which Egill’s daughter persuades her father to chew on seaweed. Furthermore, such words as sǫlvakaup n. ‘seaweed purchase’, sǫlvaponta f. ‘seaweed container’ and þangskurðr m. ‘seaweed collecting’ show that seaweed was collected and traded (see Heizmann 1993, 59-60, 65). Þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs’ is thus modelled on the same pattern as afli soðnum sega tangar ‘a hearth-boiled morsel of tongs’ (st. 16/6, 7), and the metaphor also extends into the following stanzas with lyptisylg síu ‘raised drink of the spark’ (st. 18/3, 4) and nestum meina ‘provisions of harm’ (st. 19/7, 8). Rauðbita ‘the red bite’ cannot be integrated into the kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’, but it does connect the two domains of the metaphorical comparison with ‘red’ for the glowing iron and ‘bite’ for the domain of eating. The verb gein ‘he bit at’ belongs to the latter as well (cf. gin ‘mouth’, st. 16/8). The kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’ itself belongs to both, the literal and the metaphorical levels – iron (tǫng ‘tong’) and eating (þǫng ‘seaweed’). The present interpretation is preferable to previous explanations of þangs, because it allows semantic and structural parallels to be drawn to the other kennings that paraphrase this iron projectile. Reichardt (1948, 381) understands þangs ‘of the seaweed’ as a variation on reyr ‘reed’, vǫndr ‘twig’ etc. and he combines it with tangar ‘of tongs’. This results in a kenning for an iron staff allegedly cast at Þórr, which is corroborated neither by the poem nor by the prose of Skm. Finnur Jónsson offers two different explanations for þang tangar in LP: 1. ‘seaweed of the blacksmith’s tongs’, i.e. the glowing chunk of iron (LP: þang), 2. ‘stem of seaweed gripped by tongs’ (LP: tǫng). Kock (NN §2251) reconstructs a word *þvang ‘narrowing, throat’ which he uses to translate rauðbiti þvangs þangar as tångklämmans (tångkäftens, tångsvaljets) röda bit ‘red bite of the trap of tongs (of the mouth of tongs, the throat of tongs)’.

Close

rauð ‘red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red < rauðbiti (noun m.)

kennings

þungum rauðbita þangs tangar,
‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[1-2] þungum rauðbita þangs tangar ‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’: Here the metaphorical analogy between a glowing piece of iron and food is carried over from the previous stanza. The base-word of the kenning for ‘piece of iron’, þang, falls into the category of things edible, since seaweed (sǫl n. pl. ‘red algae’, Palmaria palmate) was a source of sustenance (cf. Foote and Wilson 1970, 149; Davidson 1983, 645). See Grg Ib, 94, where it is stated that a man has the right to eat seaweed on another’s land; or the episode in Egils saga (Eg ch. 78, ÍF 2, 244-5) in which Egill’s daughter persuades her father to chew on seaweed. Furthermore, such words as sǫlvakaup n. ‘seaweed purchase’, sǫlvaponta f. ‘seaweed container’ and þangskurðr m. ‘seaweed collecting’ show that seaweed was collected and traded (see Heizmann 1993, 59-60, 65). Þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs’ is thus modelled on the same pattern as afli soðnum sega tangar ‘a hearth-boiled morsel of tongs’ (st. 16/6, 7), and the metaphor also extends into the following stanzas with lyptisylg síu ‘raised drink of the spark’ (st. 18/3, 4) and nestum meina ‘provisions of harm’ (st. 19/7, 8). Rauðbita ‘the red bite’ cannot be integrated into the kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’, but it does connect the two domains of the metaphorical comparison with ‘red’ for the glowing iron and ‘bite’ for the domain of eating. The verb gein ‘he bit at’ belongs to the latter as well (cf. gin ‘mouth’, st. 16/8). The kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’ itself belongs to both, the literal and the metaphorical levels – iron (tǫng ‘tong’) and eating (þǫng ‘seaweed’). The present interpretation is preferable to previous explanations of þangs, because it allows semantic and structural parallels to be drawn to the other kennings that paraphrase this iron projectile. Reichardt (1948, 381) understands þangs ‘of the seaweed’ as a variation on reyr ‘reed’, vǫndr ‘twig’ etc. and he combines it with tangar ‘of tongs’. This results in a kenning for an iron staff allegedly cast at Þórr, which is corroborated neither by the poem nor by the prose of Skm. Finnur Jónsson offers two different explanations for þang tangar in LP: 1. ‘seaweed of the blacksmith’s tongs’, i.e. the glowing chunk of iron (LP: þang), 2. ‘stem of seaweed gripped by tongs’ (LP: tǫng). Kock (NN §2251) reconstructs a word *þvang ‘narrowing, throat’ which he uses to translate rauðbiti þvangs þangar as tångklämmans (tångkäftens, tångsvaljets) röda bit ‘red bite of the trap of tongs (of the mouth of tongs, the throat of tongs)’.

Close

bita ‘mouthful’

biti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): mouthful, bite < rauðbiti (noun m.)

kennings

þungum rauðbita þangs tangar,
‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[1-2] þungum rauðbita þangs tangar ‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’: Here the metaphorical analogy between a glowing piece of iron and food is carried over from the previous stanza. The base-word of the kenning for ‘piece of iron’, þang, falls into the category of things edible, since seaweed (sǫl n. pl. ‘red algae’, Palmaria palmate) was a source of sustenance (cf. Foote and Wilson 1970, 149; Davidson 1983, 645). See Grg Ib, 94, where it is stated that a man has the right to eat seaweed on another’s land; or the episode in Egils saga (Eg ch. 78, ÍF 2, 244-5) in which Egill’s daughter persuades her father to chew on seaweed. Furthermore, such words as sǫlvakaup n. ‘seaweed purchase’, sǫlvaponta f. ‘seaweed container’ and þangskurðr m. ‘seaweed collecting’ show that seaweed was collected and traded (see Heizmann 1993, 59-60, 65). Þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs’ is thus modelled on the same pattern as afli soðnum sega tangar ‘a hearth-boiled morsel of tongs’ (st. 16/6, 7), and the metaphor also extends into the following stanzas with lyptisylg síu ‘raised drink of the spark’ (st. 18/3, 4) and nestum meina ‘provisions of harm’ (st. 19/7, 8). Rauðbita ‘the red bite’ cannot be integrated into the kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’, but it does connect the two domains of the metaphorical comparison with ‘red’ for the glowing iron and ‘bite’ for the domain of eating. The verb gein ‘he bit at’ belongs to the latter as well (cf. gin ‘mouth’, st. 16/8). The kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’ itself belongs to both, the literal and the metaphorical levels – iron (tǫng ‘tong’) and eating (þǫng ‘seaweed’). The present interpretation is preferable to previous explanations of þangs, because it allows semantic and structural parallels to be drawn to the other kennings that paraphrase this iron projectile. Reichardt (1948, 381) understands þangs ‘of the seaweed’ as a variation on reyr ‘reed’, vǫndr ‘twig’ etc. and he combines it with tangar ‘of tongs’. This results in a kenning for an iron staff allegedly cast at Þórr, which is corroborated neither by the poem nor by the prose of Skm. Finnur Jónsson offers two different explanations for þang tangar in LP: 1. ‘seaweed of the blacksmith’s tongs’, i.e. the glowing chunk of iron (LP: þang), 2. ‘stem of seaweed gripped by tongs’ (LP: tǫng). Kock (NN §2251) reconstructs a word *þvang ‘narrowing, throat’ which he uses to translate rauðbiti þvangs þangar as tångklämmans (tångkäftens, tångsvaljets) röda bit ‘red bite of the trap of tongs (of the mouth of tongs, the throat of tongs)’.

Close

tangar ‘of tongs’

tǫng (noun f.; °tangar, dat. -u/-; tengr/tangir): tongs

kennings

þungum rauðbita þangs tangar,
‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, ’
   = PIECE OF IRON

the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs, → PIECE OF IRON

notes

[1-2] þungum rauðbita þangs tangar ‘the heavy red mouthful of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’: Here the metaphorical analogy between a glowing piece of iron and food is carried over from the previous stanza. The base-word of the kenning for ‘piece of iron’, þang, falls into the category of things edible, since seaweed (sǫl n. pl. ‘red algae’, Palmaria palmate) was a source of sustenance (cf. Foote and Wilson 1970, 149; Davidson 1983, 645). See Grg Ib, 94, where it is stated that a man has the right to eat seaweed on another’s land; or the episode in Egils saga (Eg ch. 78, ÍF 2, 244-5) in which Egill’s daughter persuades her father to chew on seaweed. Furthermore, such words as sǫlvakaup n. ‘seaweed purchase’, sǫlvaponta f. ‘seaweed container’ and þangskurðr m. ‘seaweed collecting’ show that seaweed was collected and traded (see Heizmann 1993, 59-60, 65). Þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs’ is thus modelled on the same pattern as afli soðnum sega tangar ‘a hearth-boiled morsel of tongs’ (st. 16/6, 7), and the metaphor also extends into the following stanzas with lyptisylg síu ‘raised drink of the spark’ (st. 18/3, 4) and nestum meina ‘provisions of harm’ (st. 19/7, 8). Rauðbita ‘the red bite’ cannot be integrated into the kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’, but it does connect the two domains of the metaphorical comparison with ‘red’ for the glowing iron and ‘bite’ for the domain of eating. The verb gein ‘he bit at’ belongs to the latter as well (cf. gin ‘mouth’, st. 16/8). The kenning þangs tangar ‘of the seaweed of tongs [PIECE OF IRON]’ itself belongs to both, the literal and the metaphorical levels – iron (tǫng ‘tong’) and eating (þǫng ‘seaweed’). The present interpretation is preferable to previous explanations of þangs, because it allows semantic and structural parallels to be drawn to the other kennings that paraphrase this iron projectile. Reichardt (1948, 381) understands þangs ‘of the seaweed’ as a variation on reyr ‘reed’, vǫndr ‘twig’ etc. and he combines it with tangar ‘of tongs’. This results in a kenning for an iron staff allegedly cast at Þórr, which is corroborated neither by the poem nor by the prose of Skm. Finnur Jónsson offers two different explanations for þang tangar in LP: 1. ‘seaweed of the blacksmith’s tongs’, i.e. the glowing chunk of iron (LP: þang), 2. ‘stem of seaweed gripped by tongs’ (LP: tǫng). Kock (NN §2251) reconstructs a word *þvang ‘narrowing, throat’ which he uses to translate rauðbiti þvangs þangar as tångklämmans (tångkäftens, tångsvaljets) röda bit ‘red bite of the trap of tongs (of the mouth of tongs, the throat of tongs)’.

Close

kveld ‘of the evening’

kveld (noun n.; °-s): evening < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

kveld ‘of the evening’

kveld (noun n.; °-s): evening < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

kveld ‘of the evening’

kveld (noun n.; °-s): evening < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

runninna ‘running’

-runninn (adj.): [running] < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

runninna ‘running’

-runninn (adj.): [running] < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

runninna ‘running’

-runninn (adj.): [running] < kveldrunninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

kvinna ‘women’

kvenna (noun f.; °-u): woman, wife

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

Close

kvinna ‘women’

kvenna (noun f.; °-u): woman, wife

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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kvinna ‘women’

kvenna (noun f.; °-u): woman, wife

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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kunn ‘of the family line’

kunnr (adj.): known (?) < kunnleggr (noun m.)

[4] kunn‑: ‘k[…]n‑’ U

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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kunn ‘of the family line’

kunnr (adj.): known (?) < kunnleggr (noun m.)

[4] kunn‑: ‘k[…]n‑’ U

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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leggs ‘’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb < kunnleggr (noun m.)

[4] ‑leggs: ‑legs Tˣ, W, U

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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leggs ‘’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb < kunnleggr (noun m.)

[4] ‑leggs: ‑legs Tˣ, W, U

kennings

Þrøngvir kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna
‘The oppressor of the family line of the evening-running women ’
   = Þórr

the evening-running women → TROLL-WOMEN
the family line of the TROLL-WOMEN → GIANTS
The oppressor of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[3-4] kunnleggs kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the family line of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN > GIANTS]’: The cpd kunnleggs is not otherwise attested in Old Norse prose or poetry. It is formed from the elements kunn- (from kund-) ‘descendant’ and leggr ‘one of the extremities, hand or foot’. The meaning may be derived from a possible parallel, ættleggr (Fritzner: ættleggr) ‘genealogical lineage’. Finnur Jónsson (LP: kunnleggr) translates it as et enkelt slægtsmedlem ‘an individual member of a family’. However, ættleggr never refers to a single person (see Fritzner, ONP: ættleggr). It is therefore translated here as ‘family line’. For kveldrunninna kvinna ‘of the evening-running women [TROLL-WOMEN]’, cf. kveldriða ‘witch’ (LP, Fritzner: kveldriða). That giants are referred to as related to witches may be because both belong to groups of evil, demonic beings.

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alin ‘with his forearm’

alin (noun f.): forearm, ell < alinmunnr (noun m.)

kennings

alinmunni
‘with his forearm-mouth ’
   = HAND

with his forearm-mouth → HAND

notes

[4] alinmunni ‘with his forearm-mouth [HAND]’: An instr. dat. This kenning extends the metaphors of gein ‘gaped’ and rauðbita ‘red bite’, and it continues the mesh of metaphors between the domains of food and forge established in the previous stanza.

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munni ‘mouth’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < alinmunnr (noun m.)

kennings

alinmunni
‘with his forearm-mouth ’
   = HAND

with his forearm-mouth → HAND

notes

[4] alinmunni ‘with his forearm-mouth [HAND]’: An instr. dat. This kenning extends the metaphors of gein ‘gaped’ and rauðbita ‘red bite’, and it continues the mesh of metaphors between the domains of food and forge established in the previous stanza.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The helmingr is cited among stanzas exemplifying kennings for Þórr in Skm (SnE), but not in the part of the continuously cited stanzas after the related myth of Geirrøðr.

Although the stanza is not part of the stanzas cited after the telling of the Geirrøðr myth, it is included here because of its content (see Introduction).

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