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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eil Þdr 1III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 75.

Eilífr GoðrúnarsonÞórsdrápa
12

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

Flug ‘of precipice’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

stalla ‘altars’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < flugstallr (noun m.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1] flugstalla ‘of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS]’: According to Fritzner: flug 2, flug means ‘steep mountain-side’ (cf. ModIcel. flug, ModNorw. and Faroese flog ‘steep bluff’) and stallr means ‘altar’ (Fritzner: stallr 1). This kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘place where something is’. ‘Place’ can be replaced by any location; here stallr ‘altar’. Hence flugstallr ‘precipice-altar’ is a kenning for ‘mountain’, the place where precipices are (see also Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376). Genzmer (1934, 67) weighs various ways to interpret flugstallr and finally opts for ‘the high load-bearer, roof beam’, which he goes on to explain as an ofljóst construction for áss ‘one of the Æsir’ in light of its homonymy with áss ‘beam’. This is not very convincing (cf. also Reichardt 1948, 331). — [1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

felli* ‘the preparer’

fellir (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i): slayer, feller

[1] felli*: fellir all

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

felli* ‘the preparer’

fellir (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i): slayer, feller

[1] felli*: fellir all

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

fjǫr ‘of the life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life < fjǫrnet (noun n.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

fjǫr ‘of the life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life < fjǫrnet (noun n.)

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

nets ‘net’

net (noun n.; °; -, gen. netja): net < fjǫrnet (noun n.)

[2] ‑nets: ‘‑niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ Tˣ, ‘natz’ W

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

nets ‘net’

net (noun n.; °; -, gen. netja): net < fjǫrnet (noun n.)

[2] ‑nets: ‘‑niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ Tˣ, ‘natz’ W

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1-2] felli* fjǫrnets ‘the preparer of the life-net [KILLER]’: Lit. ‘one who casts his net for the life (of a person)’. Most eds emend fellir m. nom. sg. (so all mss) to felli m. acc. sg.; only Genzmer (1934, 65) retains the nom. fellir (for his interpretation see below). Fjǫrnets has been emended in accordance with most eds, following Konráð Gíslason (see Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 375), as none of the ms. readings makes any sense (‘-niotz’ R, ‘‑motz’ or ‘natz’ W). Fjǫrnets has been explained in various ways. This edn follows Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1902, 201-3), who offers the most convincing interpretation. According to him, fjǫrnets must mean ‘the net in which life gets caught’; cf. laxanet ‘salmon net’ and þorskanet ‘cod net’. For fella net Björn Magnússon Ólsen (ibid.) arrives at the meaning ‘prepare the net’ in light of lexical material from Modern Icelandic and Norwegian; the resulting interpretation is ‘the preparer of the net for (the giants’) lives’. Guðmundur Finnbogason (1924, 173) and Davidson (1983, 567) concur. Davidson (ibid.) suggests that this could be an allusion to the myth of Þórr as the fisher who catches Miðgarðsormr. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 376) interprets fjǫrnet as an image for ‘life’, livet set under bildet af et knytted næt ‘life reflected in the image of a meshed net’; hence fellir fjǫrnets is ‘killer’. Genzmer (1934, 65) points out that life cannot be killed and he adopts Björn Magnússon Ólsen’s interpretation ‘who prepares (casts) the net for the life’. He combines fellir fjǫrnets with goða ‘of the gods’ only, however, and interprets ‘the caster of the net for the lives of the gods’ as a kenning for Loki (Genzmer 1934, 68), which he takes as the subject of the sentence. Kock (NN §443) emends to fjǫrnjóts ‘one who enjoys living (or life) with another’, which he connects with goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of the mountains [GIANTS]’ to form a giant-kenning. However, fjǫr is not attested in the sense ‘living together’ and, moreover, fjǫrnjóts fails to supply the needed aðalhending in this line. Elsewhere, Kock (NN §2249, followed by Reichardt 1948, 332), gives a different and doubtful interpretation, suggesting that the correct word could be fjǫrnnet, meaning ‘earth-net’, supposedly a periphrasis for ‘sea’. He combines this with flugstalla, which results in ‘steep bluff by the sea’.

Close

goða ‘of the gods’

goð (noun n.): (pagan) god

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

goða ‘of the gods’

goð (noun n.): (pagan) god

kennings

felli* fjǫrnets goða flugstalla
‘the preparer of the life-net of the gods of precipice-altars ’
   = Þórr

precipice-altars → MOUNTAINS
the gods of MOUNTAINS → GIANTS
the preparer of the life-net of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[1, 2] goða flugstalla ‘of the gods of precipice-altars [MOUNTAINS > GIANTS]’: Genzmer (1934, 65 n.) objects to goða ‘of the gods’ as the base-word of a giant-kenning, but see Meissner 258; see also Reichardt (1948, 331) and NN §2756C.

Close

hvetja ‘goad’

hvetja (verb): incite, urge

[2] hvetja: so Tˣ, W, hverja R

Close

Loptr ‘Loptr’

Loftr (noun m.): [Loptr, loft]

notes

[3] Loptr: This name, which means ‘one who travels or passes through the air’, appears in the Poetic Edda (Lok 6/3; Hyndl 41/5) and in Þjóð Haustl 8/6; it is one of Loki’s names.

Close

ljúga ‘lying’

ljúga (verb): lie

Close

lǫg ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgseimr (noun m.)

kennings

Faðir lǫgseims
‘The father of the sea-thread ’
   = Loki

the sea-thread → Miðgarðsormr
The father of MIÐGARÐSORMR → Loki

notes

[4] faðir lǫgseims ‘the father of the sea-thread [= Miðgarðsormr > = Loki]’: The Miðgarðsormr-kenning is based on the idea that the serpent encircles the whole world; cf. Meissner 114 for further examples. According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 27), Loki begot Hel, Fenrir and Miðgarðsormr with the giantess Angrboða.

Close

lǫg ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgseimr (noun m.)

kennings

Faðir lǫgseims
‘The father of the sea-thread ’
   = Loki

the sea-thread → Miðgarðsormr
The father of MIÐGARÐSORMR → Loki

notes

[4] faðir lǫgseims ‘the father of the sea-thread [= Miðgarðsormr > = Loki]’: The Miðgarðsormr-kenning is based on the idea that the serpent encircles the whole world; cf. Meissner 114 for further examples. According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 27), Loki begot Hel, Fenrir and Miðgarðsormr with the giantess Angrboða.

Close

seims ‘thread’

3. seimr (noun m.): thread < lǫgseimr (noun m.)

[4] ‑seims: ‘‑sems’ Tˣ

kennings

Faðir lǫgseims
‘The father of the sea-thread ’
   = Loki

the sea-thread → Miðgarðsormr
The father of MIÐGARÐSORMR → Loki

notes

[4] faðir lǫgseims ‘the father of the sea-thread [= Miðgarðsormr > = Loki]’: The Miðgarðsormr-kenning is based on the idea that the serpent encircles the whole world; cf. Meissner 114 for further examples. According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 27), Loki begot Hel, Fenrir and Miðgarðsormr with the giantess Angrboða.

Close

seims ‘thread’

3. seimr (noun m.): thread < lǫgseimr (noun m.)

[4] ‑seims: ‘‑sems’ Tˣ

kennings

Faðir lǫgseims
‘The father of the sea-thread ’
   = Loki

the sea-thread → Miðgarðsormr
The father of MIÐGARÐSORMR → Loki

notes

[4] faðir lǫgseims ‘the father of the sea-thread [= Miðgarðsormr > = Loki]’: The Miðgarðsormr-kenning is based on the idea that the serpent encircles the whole world; cf. Meissner 114 for further examples. According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 27), Loki begot Hel, Fenrir and Miðgarðsormr with the giantess Angrboða.

Close

faðir ‘The father’

faðir (noun m.): father

kennings

Faðir lǫgseims
‘The father of the sea-thread ’
   = Loki

the sea-thread → Miðgarðsormr
The father of MIÐGARÐSORMR → Loki

notes

[4] faðir lǫgseims ‘the father of the sea-thread [= Miðgarðsormr > = Loki]’: The Miðgarðsormr-kenning is based on the idea that the serpent encircles the whole world; cf. Meissner 114 for further examples. According to Gylf (SnE 2005, 27), Loki begot Hel, Fenrir and Miðgarðsormr with the giantess Angrboða.

Close

heiman ‘to leave home’

heiman (adv.): from home

Close

Geð ‘mind’

geð (noun n.): mind < geðreynir (noun m.)

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

reynir ‘tester’

2. reynir (noun m.): tester < geðreynir (noun m.)

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

grœnar ‘green’

2. grœnn (adj.; °superl. grǿnastr/grǿnstr): green

[5] grœnar: so Tˣ, W, greinar R

Close

Gauts ‘of the Gautr’

2. Gautr (noun m.): Gautr, Óðinn

[6] Gauts: om. W

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

Gauts ‘of the Gautr’

2. Gautr (noun m.): Gautr, Óðinn

[6] Gauts: om. W

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

her ‘of host’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herþruma (noun f.)

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

her ‘of host’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herþruma (noun f.)

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

her ‘of host’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herþruma (noun f.)

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

þrumu ‘thunder’

1. þruma (noun f.; °; -ur): thunder-clap < herþruma (noun f.)

[6] ‑þrumu: ‘‑þrumi’ Tˣ

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

þrumu ‘thunder’

1. þruma (noun f.; °; -ur): thunder-clap < herþruma (noun f.)

[6] ‑þrumu: ‘‑þrumi’ Tˣ

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

þrumu ‘thunder’

1. þruma (noun f.; °; -ur): thunder-clap < herþruma (noun f.)

[6] ‑þrumu: ‘‑þrumi’ Tˣ

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki

notes

[5, 6] geðreynir Gauts herþrumu ‘mind-tester of the Gautr <= Óðinn> of host-thunder [BATTLE > WARRIOR = Þórr > = Loki]’: The context clearly points to Loki as the referent of the kenning. The kenning Gauts herþrumu is a warrior-kenning consisting of a god’s name as the base-word qualified by a battle-kenning (Reichardt 1948, 332-3), but as a determinant to geðreynir ‘mind-tester’ it must refer either to Þórr or to Óðinn. There are several instances where warrior-kennings are used for Þórr and Þjálfi (see Introduction above). Loki is attested as a confidant of both Óðinn and Þórr. Loki is Þórr’s companion in many of the god’s dealing with the giants, e.g. in the stories about Þórr and the giants Þrymr (Þrymskviða), Hrungnir (Haustlǫng) and Útgarðaloki (Gylf, SnE 2005, 37-43). But Loki is also a companion of Óðinn, e.g. in Haustlǫng. In this stanza, two arguments point to Þórr, namely, the context of the stanza that shows Loki talking to Þórr and trying to persuade him, and, secondly, the problem with interpreting Gauts herþrumu as an Óðinn-kenning since the base-word Gautr is an Óðinn-heiti in its own right. Nevertheless, other eds have proposed that this is an Óðinn-kenning (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 376; Meissner 254 with reservations) or a proper Þórr-kenning (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 17; Genzmer 1934, 69; Kiil 1956, 95). A rearrangement of the kenning (Davidson 1983, 568-9) to geðreynir Hergauts þrumu ‘temper-tryer of the War-Gautr of thunder (i.e. of the Óðinn of thunder, i.e. of Þórr)’ is not necessary.

Close

vilgi ‘The by no means’

vilgi (adv.): not at all, by no means

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki
Close

tryggr ‘trustworthy’

tryggr (adj.; °tryggan/tryggvan; compar. -ari/-vari; superl. -jastr/-astr): loyal

kennings

Vilgi tryggr geðreynir Gauts herþrumu
‘The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the Gautr of host-thunder ’
   = Loki

host-thunder → BATTLE
the Gautr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Þórr
The by no means trustworthy mind-tester of the WARRIORÞÓRR → Loki
Close

til ‘towards’

til (prep.): to

Close

veggjar ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

kennings

viggs veggjar
‘the steed of the wall ’
   = HOUSE

the steed of the wall → HOUSE
Close

viggs ‘the steed’

vigg (noun n.): steed

kennings

viggs veggjar
‘the steed of the wall ’
   = HOUSE

the steed of the wall → HOUSE
Close

røðar ‘røðr’

-røðr (noun m.): [røðr] < Geirrøðr (noun m.): Geirrøðr

[8] ‑røðar: ‑raðar W

Close

liggja ‘lay’

liggja (verb): lie

[8] liggja: ‘lig[…]a’ W

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Stanzas 1-4, 6-21 are cited in Skm (SnE) after a prose account of Þórr’s journey to Geirrøðargarðr ‘court of Geirrøðr’ and his fights with the giant and his daughters.

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