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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Edáð Banddr 2I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyjólfr dáðaskáld, Bandadrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 457.

Eyjólfr dáðaskáldBandadrápa
123

Hoðz ‘’

Close

Hodd ‘treasure’

1. hodd (noun f.): gold, treasure < hoddsveigir (noun m.)1. hodd (noun f.): gold, treasure1. hodd (noun f.): gold, treasure < hoddhneigir (noun m.): treasure-oppressor

[1] Hodd‑: ‘Hoðz’ J1ˣ

kennings

Harða ríkr hoddsveigir
‘The very mighty treasure-bender ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

The very mighty treasure-bender → GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr
Close

sveigir ‘bender’

sveigir (noun m.): brandisher < hoddsveigir (noun m.)sveigir (noun m.): brandisher

[1] ‑sveigir: sveigi F, hneigi 325VIII 1

kennings

Harða ríkr hoddsveigir
‘The very mighty treasure-bender ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

The very mighty treasure-bender → GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr
Close

létz ‘’

Close

lét ‘caused’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lét: so F, létz Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VIII 1

notes

[1] lét ‘caused’: The variation between lét and lézt in the mss may point to an original alternation between 2nd and 3rd pers. narrative in the poem (cf. brátt ‘you snatched’, l. 3 and nam stíga ‘(he) strode’, l. 5).

Close

hníga ‘to fall’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

Close

harða ‘The very’

harða (adv.): very

kennings

Harða ríkr hoddsveigir
‘The very mighty treasure-bender ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

The very mighty treasure-bender → GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

notes

[2] harða ríkr ‘very mighty’: Probably an allusion to Eiríkr’s name; see AEW: Eiríkr.

Close

ríkr ‘mighty’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

kennings

Harða ríkr hoddsveigir
‘The very mighty treasure-bender ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

The very mighty treasure-bender → GENEROUS MAN = Eiríkr

notes

[2] harða ríkr ‘very mighty’: Probably an allusion to Eiríkr’s name; see AEW: Eiríkr.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < logreifir (noun m.)

[3] log‑: lǫg F

kennings

handa logreifis.
‘flame-presenter of hands’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

the flame of hands. → GOLD
the presenter of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

notes

[3] logreifis ‘of the flame-presenter’: For the sense of reifir here, cf. the verb reifa ‘bestow’; in other contexts ‘promoter, gladdener’ are possible (so LP: reifir).

Close

log ‘of the flame’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < logreifir (noun m.)

[3] log‑: lǫg F

kennings

handa logreifis.
‘flame-presenter of hands’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

the flame of hands. → GOLD
the presenter of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

notes

[3] logreifis ‘of the flame-presenter’: For the sense of reifir here, cf. the verb reifa ‘bestow’; in other contexts ‘promoter, gladdener’ are possible (so LP: reifir).

Close

reifis ‘of the presenter’

reifir (noun m.): presenter, gladdener < logreifir (noun m.)

kennings

handa logreifis.
‘flame-presenter of hands’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

the flame of hands. → GOLD
the presenter of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

notes

[3] logreifis ‘of the flame-presenter’: For the sense of reifir here, cf. the verb reifa ‘bestow’; in other contexts ‘promoter, gladdener’ are possible (so LP: reifir).

Close

land ‘the country’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < landmaðr (noun m.): property-ownerland (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < landmen (noun n.)

kennings

landmann Kíars
‘the countryman of Kíarr ’
   = Skopti

the countryman of Kíarr → Skopti

notes

[4] landmann Kíars ‘the countryman of Kíarr [= Skopti]’: Landmaðr means ‘settler, inhabitant of a land, countryman’ (Fritzner: landmaðr 1). Kíarr is a legendary ruler, and the word has been derived from Lat. cæsar (LP: Kíarr, though not AEW). In Anon (Heiðr) 6/6VIII (Heiðr 87) Kíarr is specifically a ruler of the Valir, the Franks, but kíarr here may function as a generic term for ‘ruler’, denoting Skopti’s patron Hákon jarl. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) gives this identification but equates landmaðr with lendr maðr ‘landed man, district chieftain’. However, this sense is not attested, and although according to Hkr (ÍF 26, 248) Skopti was Hákon’s kinsman-in-law and in high favour, he is not referred to as a lendr maðr .

Close

mann ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < landmaðr (noun m.): property-owner

[4] ‑mann: ‑mens F

kennings

landmann Kíars
‘the countryman of Kíarr ’
   = Skopti

the countryman of Kíarr → Skopti

notes

[4] landmann Kíars ‘the countryman of Kíarr [= Skopti]’: Landmaðr means ‘settler, inhabitant of a land, countryman’ (Fritzner: landmaðr 1). Kíarr is a legendary ruler, and the word has been derived from Lat. cæsar (LP: Kíarr, though not AEW). In Anon (Heiðr) 6/6VIII (Heiðr 87) Kíarr is specifically a ruler of the Valir, the Franks, but kíarr here may function as a generic term for ‘ruler’, denoting Skopti’s patron Hákon jarl. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) gives this identification but equates landmaðr with lendr maðr ‘landed man, district chieftain’. However, this sense is not attested, and although according to Hkr (ÍF 26, 248) Skopti was Hákon’s kinsman-in-law and in high favour, he is not referred to as a lendr maðr .

Close

Kíars ‘Kíarr’

Kíarr (noun m.): Kíarr

[4] Kíars handa: Kíar sanda F

kennings

landmann Kíars
‘the countryman of Kíarr ’
   = Skopti

the countryman of Kíarr → Skopti

notes

[4] landmann Kíars ‘the countryman of Kíarr [= Skopti]’: Landmaðr means ‘settler, inhabitant of a land, countryman’ (Fritzner: landmaðr 1). Kíarr is a legendary ruler, and the word has been derived from Lat. cæsar (LP: Kíarr, though not AEW). In Anon (Heiðr) 6/6VIII (Heiðr 87) Kíarr is specifically a ruler of the Valir, the Franks, but kíarr here may function as a generic term for ‘ruler’, denoting Skopti’s patron Hákon jarl. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) gives this identification but equates landmaðr with lendr maðr ‘landed man, district chieftain’. However, this sense is not attested, and although according to Hkr (ÍF 26, 248) Skopti was Hákon’s kinsman-in-law and in high favour, he is not referred to as a lendr maðr .

Close

handa ‘of hands’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[4] Kíars handa: Kíar sanda F

kennings

handa logreifis.
‘flame-presenter of hands’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

the flame of hands. → GOLD
the presenter of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Skopti
Close

handa ‘of hands’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[4] Kíars handa: Kíar sanda F

kennings

handa logreifis.
‘flame-presenter of hands’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Skopti

the flame of hands. → GOLD
the presenter of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN = Skopti
Close

Stál ‘The sword’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow < stálœgir (noun m.)1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow < stálýgir (noun m.)

kennings

Stálœgir
‘The sword-intimidator ’
   = WARRIOR = Eiríkr

The sword-intimidator → WARRIOR = Eiríkr

notes

[5] stálœgir ‘the sword-intimidator [WARRIOR = Eiríkr]’: Stál is etymologically ‘steel (weapon)’. In the second element, normalisation to the god-name Ægir would be possible, but Konráð Gíslason (1876, 315) showed that œgir in such kennings is an agentive, from œgja ‘frighten’ (cf. ógn ‘fear’), and hence to be spelt with <œ> (oe ligature). Cf. œgir gumna ‘intimidator of men [RULER]’ in st. 6/5, 6.

Close

œgir ‘intimidator’

œgir (noun m.): terrifier < stálœgir (noun m.)

[5] ‑œgir: ýgir F

kennings

Stálœgir
‘The sword-intimidator ’
   = WARRIOR = Eiríkr

The sword-intimidator → WARRIOR = Eiríkr

notes

[5] stálœgir ‘the sword-intimidator [WARRIOR = Eiríkr]’: Stál is etymologically ‘steel (weapon)’. In the second element, normalisation to the god-name Ægir would be possible, but Konráð Gíslason (1876, 315) showed that œgir in such kennings is an agentive, from œgja ‘frighten’ (cf. ógn ‘fear’), and hence to be spelt with <œ> (oe ligature). Cf. œgir gumna ‘intimidator of men [RULER]’ in st. 6/5, 6.

Close

stíga ‘strode’

stíga (verb): step

[5] stíga: hníga 325VIII 1

notes

[5] nam stíga ‘strode’: Lit. ‘got/proceeded to stride’.

Close

stafns ‘of the stem’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

stafns ‘of the stem’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

stafns ‘of the stem’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

stafns ‘of the stem’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

kar ‘’

Close

fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’

fletbǫlkr (noun m.): [house-partition]

[6] fletbalkar: ‘fet bal kar’ F, ‘flek baki’ J1ˣ

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’: This unique cpd functions as the base-word of an embedded shield-kenning. There are further examples of bǫlkr ‘partition’ or veggr ‘wall’ in this role (Meissner 170) and of shield-kennings with ship terms as determinants (Meissner 175-6). Flet denotes the floor of a building (Fritzner: flet) or a raised platform running along a wall and hence, especially in the pl., a house (LP: flet). Skj B emends to flat- ‘flat’.

Close

fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’

fletbǫlkr (noun m.): [house-partition]

[6] fletbalkar: ‘fet bal kar’ F, ‘flek baki’ J1ˣ

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’: This unique cpd functions as the base-word of an embedded shield-kenning. There are further examples of bǫlkr ‘partition’ or veggr ‘wall’ in this role (Meissner 170) and of shield-kennings with ship terms as determinants (Meissner 175-6). Flet denotes the floor of a building (Fritzner: flet) or a raised platform running along a wall and hence, especially in the pl., a house (LP: flet). Skj B emends to flat- ‘flat’.

Close

fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’

fletbǫlkr (noun m.): [house-partition]

[6] fletbalkar: ‘fet bal kar’ F, ‘flek baki’ J1ˣ

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] fletbalkar ‘of the house-partition’: This unique cpd functions as the base-word of an embedded shield-kenning. There are further examples of bǫlkr ‘partition’ or veggr ‘wall’ in this role (Meissner 170) and of shield-kennings with ship terms as determinants (Meissner 175-6). Flet denotes the floor of a building (Fritzner: flet) or a raised platform running along a wall and hence, especially in the pl., a house (LP: flet). Skj B emends to flat- ‘flat’.

Close

hrafna ‘of the horses’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] hrafna ‘of the horses’: Like valr ‘falcon’, hrafn is both a bird-name (‘raven’) and a proper name for a horse and hence a horse-heiti which appears in ship-kennings (see LP: 1. hrafn, 2. Hrafn).

Close

hrafna ‘of the horses’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] hrafna ‘of the horses’: Like valr ‘falcon’, hrafn is both a bird-name (‘raven’) and a proper name for a horse and hence a horse-heiti which appears in ship-kennings (see LP: 1. hrafn, 2. Hrafn).

Close

hrafna ‘of the horses’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] hrafna ‘of the horses’: Like valr ‘falcon’, hrafn is both a bird-name (‘raven’) and a proper name for a horse and hence a horse-heiti which appears in ship-kennings (see LP: 1. hrafn, 2. Hrafn).

Close

hrafna ‘of the horses’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti

notes

[6] hrafna ‘of the horses’: Like valr ‘falcon’, hrafn is both a bird-name (‘raven’) and a proper name for a horse and hence a horse-heiti which appears in ship-kennings (see LP: 1. hrafn, 2. Hrafn).

Close

af ‘away from’

af (prep.): from

Close

dyn ‘of the din’

dynr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): din < dynbeiðir (noun m.)

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

dyn ‘of the din’

dynr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): din < dynbeiðir (noun m.)

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

beiði ‘requester’

beiðir (noun m.): demander < dynbeiðir (noun m.)

kennings

stafns hrafna fletbalkar dynbeiði.
‘din-requester of the house-partition of the horses of the stem’
   = WARRIOR = Skopti

the horses of the stem. → SHIPS
the house-partition of SHIPS → SHIELD
the din of the SHIELD → BATTLE
requester of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Skopti
Close

dauðum ‘the dead’

2. dauðr (adj.): dead

Close

banda ‘of the gods’

band (noun n.; °-s; *-): band, bond

[8] banda: branda J1ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza follows st. 1 (see Context) without interruption. 

[1-4]: The stanza depicts a killing which can reasonably be equated with Eiríkr’s killing of Skopti in st. 1, although the antagonists are not identified, and there are interpretative difficulties: alternative readings (F departing from the other mss), alternative editorial construals, and a particular difficulty with Kíar(s) in l. 4. (a) Adopted in this edn is the solution proposed by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26, followed by Hkr 1991), which involves no emendations, uses the readings, which are supported by mss from both branches of the Hkr stemma, and does not assume unattested usages except for that of Kíarr. The second kenning for ‘generous man’ is taken to refer to Skopti, and qualifies lífi ‘life’. Landmann ‘countryman’ and Kíars ‘of Kíarr’ are taken together as a kenning also designating Skopti (see Note to l. 4). (b) Earlier eds accepted the readings landmens ‘land-torque’ and sanda ‘sands’ from ms. F. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B) proposed: Harða ríkr hoddsveigir lét mens Kíar hníga, þás barðisk; brátt lífi sanda landlogreifis, which would give ‘The very mighty man made the leader fall, when he fought; you snatched away the life of the generous man’. Here land- ‘land’ and -mens ‘torque’ are separated: land- is combined via tmesis with logreifis ‘flame-presenter’ and also with sanda ‘of sands’ to form the kenning ‘presenter of the flame of the land of sands [SEA > GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’; Kíar mens ‘Kíarr of the torque’ forms a further kenning for ‘man’, with the ruler-heiti Kíarr substituting for a god-heiti, which would be normal in this type of kenning. (c) Kock (NN §551) instead posits a gold-kenning log landmens ‘fire of the torque of land [SEA > GOLD]’ and construes sanda as qualifying Kíar, i.e. ‘prince of the sands / of the coast’, parallel to his hersi útvershersir/lord of the fishing-ground’ in st. 1. The kenning log landmens finds support in Glúmr Eir 1III log banda lands ‘flame of the ties of the land [SEA > GOLD]’ (cf. de Vries 1964-7, I, 183). (d) Log landmens, again taken as ‘gold’, could form an extended kenning for ‘generous man’ with ‑reifis ‘presenter’ as the base-word, and the whole qualifying lífi ‘life’, while acc. sg. Kíar could be a heiti for ‘ruler’ and refer to Skopti. However this would leave sanda ‘of the sands’ unaccounted for. — [8]: This is the first instalment of the klofastef ‘split refrain’ (see st. 9 and Notes for the complete stef). The wording recalls Eskál Vell 8/2 austr lǫnd at mun banda ‘in the east, lands at the will of the gods’ and 14/4 hofs lǫnd ok vé banda ‘lands of the temple and sanctuaries of the gods’, and cf. Eil Frag 1/4III. It may be especially influenced by the stef which is Glúmr Eir 1: Brandr fær logs ok landa | lands Eiríki banda ‘the sword wins Eiríkr the flame of the ties of the land [SEA > GOLD] and lands’ (Fidjestøl 1982, 185; cf. Note to ll. 1-4, interpretation (c) above); the verbal parallels are striking, despite the fact that banda is used in different senses. Imitative composition of stef is a well-attested skaldic practice (Fidjestøl 1982, 184; cf. Note to st. 5/8 below).

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