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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Run 7II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Runhenda 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 556.

Einarr SkúlasonRunhenda

Jók hilmir hjaldr
— þar vas hjǫrva galdr —
— hjósk hildar ský —
við Hvítabý.
Ríkt lék við rǫnn
— rauzk ylgjar tǫnn —
— fekksk fyrðum harmr —
fyriskógar Garmr.

Hilmir jók hjaldr við Hvítabý; þar vas {galdr hjǫrva}; {ský hildar} hjósk. {Garmr fyriskógar} lék ríkt við rǫnn; tǫnn ylgjar rauzk; harmr fekksk fyrðum.

The prince intensified the fighting at Whitby; there was {a chant of swords} [BATTLE] there; {the cloud of battle} [SHIELD] was cloven. {The Garmr <mythical dog> of the fir-forest} [FIRE] played powerfully against houses; the tooth of the she-wolf was reddened; grief was inflicted on people.

Mss: Mork(35v) (Mork); Kˣ(659r-v), F(73vb), E(57r), J2ˣ(356r-v), 42ˣ(47r) (Hkr); Hr(81rb) (H-Hr); R(40r), Tˣ(41v), C(9r) (SnE, ll. 3-4)

Readings: [2] þar vas (‘þar var’): við Hr;    galdr: ‘gialldr’ 42ˣ    [3] hjósk: raufsk R, Tˣ, ‘hraudz’ C    [4] við: fyr E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ;    Hvíta‑: heiða‑ C    [5] Ríkt: ríkr Hr;    lék: so Kˣ, F, Hr, ‘let’ or ‘lec’ Mork, lét E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ    [6] ylgjar: hildar 42ˣ    [7] fekksk: fekk J2ˣ    [8] ‑skógar: ‑skóga E, 42ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 474, Skj BI, 446, Skald I, 220; Mork 1867, 226, Mork 1928-32, 444, Andersson and Gade 2000, 392, 495 (Hsona); ÍF 28, 328-9 (Hsona ch. 20), F 1871, 339, E 1916, 199; Fms 7, 236 (Hsona ch. 20); SnE 1848-87, I, 524-5, II, 608, SnE 1931, 184, SnE 1998, I, 104.

Context: As st. 6 above.

Notes: [3-4]: In R, , and C, ll. 3-4 follow st. 6/1-2 above. — [3]: This l. could also be construed with l. 4, but that is less likely in view of the preference for two intercalary clauses in ll. 2 and 3, 6 and 7 displayed elsewhere in this poem (cf. the second helmingr of the current st., as well as sts 5 and 7). — [4] við Hvítabý ‘at Whitby’: Located on the Yorkshire coast (see Townend 1998, 42-4).


  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  6. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  7. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  8. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  9. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  10. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  11. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  12. Mork 1867 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1867. Morkinskinna: Pergamentsbog fra første halvdel af det trettende aarhundrede. Indeholdende en af de ældste optegnelser af norske kongesagaer. Oslo: Bentzen.
  13. Townend, Matthew. 1998. English Place-Names in Skaldic Verse. English Place-Name Society extra ser. 1. Nottingham: English Place-Name Society.

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