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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Run 7II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Runhenda 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 556.

Einarr SkúlasonRunhenda
678

hjaldr ‘the fighting’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[2] þar vas (‘þar var’): við Hr

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vas ‘there was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[2] þar vas (‘þar var’): við Hr

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hjǫrva ‘of swords’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

galdr hjǫrva;
‘a chant of swords ’
   = BATTLE

a chant of swords → BATTLE
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galdr ‘a chant’

galdr (noun m.): chant, incantation

[2] galdr: ‘gialldr’ 42ˣ

kennings

galdr hjǫrva;
‘a chant of swords ’
   = BATTLE

a chant of swords → BATTLE
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hjósk ‘was cloven’

hǫggva (verb): to strike, put to death, cut, hew

[3] hjósk: raufsk R, Tˣ, ‘hraudz’ C

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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

ský hildar
‘the cloud of battle ’
   = SHIELD

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
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ský ‘the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

ský hildar
‘the cloud of battle ’
   = SHIELD

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
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við ‘at’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[4] við: fyr E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ

notes

[4] við Hvítabý ‘at Whitby’: Located on the Yorkshire coast (see Townend 1998, 42-4).

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Hvíta ‘Whit’

hvítr (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): white < Hvítabýr (noun m.)

[4] Hvíta‑: heiða‑ C

notes

[4] við Hvítabý ‘at Whitby’: Located on the Yorkshire coast (see Townend 1998, 42-4).

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Ríkt ‘powerfully’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[5] Ríkt: ríkr Hr

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lék ‘played’

3. leika (verb): play

[5] lék: so Kˣ, F, Hr, ‘let’ or ‘lec’ Mork, lét E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ

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rauzk ‘was reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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ylgjar ‘of the she-wolf’

ylgr (noun f.; °acc. -i): she-wolf

[6] ylgjar: hildar 42ˣ

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fekksk ‘was inflicted’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[7] fekksk: fekk J2ˣ

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fyri ‘of the fir-’

1. fyri (noun n.): [fir-] < fyriskógr (noun m.)

kennings

Garmr fyriskógar
‘The Garmr of the fir-forest ’
   = FIRE

The Garmr of the fir-forest → FIRE
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skógar ‘forest’

skógr (noun m.; °-ar/-s, dat. -i; -ar): forest < fyriskógr (noun m.)

[8] ‑skógar: ‑skóga E, 42ˣ

kennings

Garmr fyriskógar
‘The Garmr of the fir-forest ’
   = FIRE

The Garmr of the fir-forest → FIRE
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Garmr ‘The Garmr’

2. Garmr (noun m.): [hound, Garmr]

kennings

Garmr fyriskógar
‘The Garmr of the fir-forest ’
   = FIRE

The Garmr of the fir-forest → FIRE
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As st. 6 above.

[3]: This l. could also be construed with l. 4, but that is less likely in view of the preference for two intercalary clauses in ll. 2 and 3, 6 and 7 displayed elsewhere in this poem (cf. the second helmingr of the current st., as well as sts 5 and 7). — [3-4]: In R, , and C, ll. 3-4 follow st. 6/1-2 above.

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