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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Øxfl 9III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Øxarflokkr 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 149.

Einarr SkúlasonØxarflokkr
8910

þák ‘I received’

þiggja (verb): receive, get

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rauðra ‘of red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red

[1] rauðra: so W, A, 2368ˣ, 743ˣ, ‘raþra’ R, randa Tˣ, rauðar U

kennings

ís rauðra randa
‘an icicle of red shields ’
   = SWORD

an icicle of red shields → SWORD

notes

[1-2] rauðra randa ‘of red shields’: For shields painted red, see Falk (1914b, 128-32) and Note to Sjórs Lv 3/1II. — [1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

rauðra ‘of red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red

[1] rauðra: so W, A, 2368ˣ, 743ˣ, ‘raþra’ R, randa Tˣ, rauðar U

kennings

ís rauðra randa
‘an icicle of red shields ’
   = SWORD

an icicle of red shields → SWORD

notes

[1-2] rauðra randa ‘of red shields’: For shields painted red, see Falk (1914b, 128-32) and Note to Sjórs Lv 3/1II. — [1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

randa ‘shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[2] randa: rauðra Tˣ, randar U

kennings

ís rauðra randa
‘an icicle of red shields ’
   = SWORD

an icicle of red shields → SWORD

notes

[1-2] rauðra randa ‘of red shields’: For shields painted red, see Falk (1914b, 128-32) and Note to Sjórs Lv 3/1II. — [1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

randa ‘shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[2] randa: rauðra Tˣ, randar U

kennings

ís rauðra randa
‘an icicle of red shields ’
   = SWORD

an icicle of red shields → SWORD

notes

[1-2] rauðra randa ‘of red shields’: For shields painted red, see Falk (1914b, 128-32) and Note to Sjórs Lv 3/1II. — [1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

ís ‘an icicle’

íss (noun m.; °íss; dat. ísi/ís; ísar): ice

kennings

ís rauðra randa
‘an icicle of red shields ’
   = SWORD

an icicle of red shields → SWORD

notes

[1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

vísa ‘ruler’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

[2] vísa: ‘[…]ísa’ U

Close

grand ‘the harm’

grand (noun n.): injury

[3] grand berum: ‘grandbern’ 743ˣ

kennings

grand hjalms,
‘the harm of the helmet, ’
   = AXE/SWORD

the harm of the helmet, → AXE/SWORD

notes

[1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

berum ‘we [I] carry’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[3] grand berum: ‘grandbern’ 743ˣ;    berum: ‘be[…]’ U

Close

hjalms ‘of the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

[3] hjalms: ‘h[…]ms’ U

kennings

grand hjalms,
‘the harm of the helmet, ’
   = AXE/SWORD

the harm of the helmet, → AXE/SWORD

notes

[1-2, 3] ís rauðra randa; grand hjalms ‘an icicle of red shields [SWORD]; the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD]’: Finnur Jónsson takes the first as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B) or ‘sword’ (LP: íss) and the second as a kenning for ‘axe’ (Skj B; LP: grand). Snorri gives both as kennings for ‘sword’ (see Meissner 149), however. Because the second kenning could conceivably denote ‘axe’, that option is left open in the present edn. See also Note to st. 3/4 above.

Close

hvarm ‘with the eyelid’

hvarmr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): eyelid < hvarmþeyr (noun m.)

[4] hvarm‑: ‘hram’ U, hvern A

kennings

hvarmþey Freyju,
‘with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, ’
   = GOLD

with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, → GOLD

notes

[8] hvarmþey Freyju ‘with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD]’: For Freyja weeping tears of gold, see Note to st. 1/1, 4 above.

Close

hvarm ‘with the eyelid’

hvarmr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): eyelid < hvarmþeyr (noun m.)

[4] hvarm‑: ‘hram’ U, hvern A

kennings

hvarmþey Freyju,
‘with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, ’
   = GOLD

with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, → GOLD

notes

[8] hvarmþey Freyju ‘with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD]’: For Freyja weeping tears of gold, see Note to st. 1/1, 4 above.

Close

þey ‘thaw’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind < hvarmþeyr (noun m.)

kennings

hvarmþey Freyju,
‘with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, ’
   = GOLD

with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, → GOLD

notes

[8] hvarmþey Freyju ‘with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD]’: For Freyja weeping tears of gold, see Note to st. 1/1, 4 above.

Close

þey ‘thaw’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind < hvarmþeyr (noun m.)

kennings

hvarmþey Freyju,
‘with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, ’
   = GOLD

with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, → GOLD

notes

[8] hvarmþey Freyju ‘with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD]’: For Freyja weeping tears of gold, see Note to st. 1/1, 4 above.

Close

Freyju ‘of Freyja’

Freyja (noun f.): Freyja

[4] Freyju: meyju U

kennings

hvarmþey Freyju,
‘with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, ’
   = GOLD

with the eyelid-thaw of Freyja, → GOLD

notes

[8] hvarmþey Freyju ‘with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD]’: For Freyja weeping tears of gold, see Note to st. 1/1, 4 above.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Íss randa ‘icicle of shields’ and grand hjalms ‘harm of the helmet’ are both given as examples of sword-kennings in Skm and LaufE.

The poet is identified as ‘Einarr’ in all mss, but no patronymic is given for him. Because of the gold-kenning, whose imagery is consistent with that of sts 1-3 (see Introduction above), the attribution to Einarr Skúlason seems likely.

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