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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Øxfl 9III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Øxarflokkr 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 149.

Einarr SkúlasonØxarflokkr

text and translation

Ráðvǫndum þák rauðra
randa ís at vísa;
grand berum hjalms í hendi
hvarmþey drifin Freyju.

Þák {ís rauðra randa} at ráðvǫndum vísa; berum {grand hjalms}, drifin {{hvarmþey} Freyju}, í hendi.
‘I received an icicle of red shields [SWORD] from the righteous ruler; we [I] carry the harm of the helmet [AXE/SWORD], covered with the eyelid-thaw [TEARS] of Freyja <goddess> [GOLD], in my hand.

notes and context

Íss randa ‘icicle of shields’ and grand hjalms ‘harm of the helmet’ are both given as examples of sword-kennings in Skm and LaufE.

The poet is identified as ‘Einarr’ in all mss, but no patronymic is given for him. Because of the gold-kenning, whose imagery is consistent with that of sts 1-3 (see Introduction above), the attribution to Einarr Skúlason seems likely.



Text is based on reconstruction from the base text and variant apparatus and may contain alternative spellings and other normalisations not visible in the manuscript text. Transcriptions may not have been checked and should not be cited.

editions and texts

Skj: Einarr Skúlason, 11. Øxarflokkr(?) 9: AI, 479, BI, 451, Skald I, 222; SnE 1848-87, I, 430-1, II, 330, 441, III, 82, SnE 1931, 153, SnE 1998, I, 71; LaufE 1979, 391.


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