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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Øxfl 8III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Øxarflokkr 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 148.

Einarr SkúlasonØxarflokkr
789

þrymr ‘rests’

2. þrymja (verb): resound, make noise

[1] þrymr: so R, U, þrumir W, Tˣ, A, B, C, 2368ˣ, 743ˣ

Close

hvert ‘Every’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[1] hvert: ‘huortt’ 2368ˣ

Close

en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[1] en hjarta: ‘[…]’ R

Close

hjarta ‘heart’

hjarta (noun n.; °-; *-u): heart

[1] en hjarta: ‘[…]’ R

Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrskildir (noun m.)

[2] hlýrskildir ræðr mildu: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrskildir (noun m.)

[2] hlýrskildir ræðr mildu: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

skildir ‘the shield-provider’

skildir (noun m.): shield-giver < hlýrskildir (noun m.)

[2] hlýrskildir ræðr mildu: ‘[…]’ R;    ‑skildir: ‑skildis C

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

ræðr ‘has’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[2] hlýrskildir ræðr mildu: ‘[…]’ R;    ræðr: réðu Tˣ

Close

mildu ‘a generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

[2] hlýrskildir ræðr mildu: ‘[…]’ R;    mildu: mildum U, mildi C

Close

Heita ‘of Heiti’s’

Heiti (noun m.): Heiti

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

Heita ‘of Heiti’s’

Heiti (noun m.): Heiti

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

blakks ‘horse’

1. blakkr (noun m.): horse

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

blakks ‘horse’

1. blakkr (noun m.): horse

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

Heita blakks hlýrskildir
‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the prow of Heiti’s horse → SHIP
the shield-provider of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] Heita blakks hlýrskildir ‘the shield-provider of the prow of Heiti’s <sea-king’s> horse [(lit. ‘prow-shield-provider of Heiti’s horse’) SHIP > SEA-WARRIOR]’: For a similar kenning for ‘sea-warrior’, see skildir brands skeiðar ‘shield-provider of the warship’s prow’ (Arn Hryn 7/3, 4II).

Close

of ‘on’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R

Close

hvítum ‘the white’

hvítr (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): white

[3] Heita blakks of hvítum: ‘[…]’ R;    hvítum: ‘hv[…]’ U

kennings

hvítum digulskafli,
‘the white crucible-snowdrift, ’
   = SILVER

the white crucible-snowdrift, → SILVER
Close

haf ‘the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[4] hafleygr digulskafli: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

hafleygr
‘the sea-flame ’
   = GOLD

the sea-flame → GOLD
Close

leygr ‘flame’

1. leygr (noun m.): flame < hafleygr (noun m.): ocean-flame

[4] hafleygr digulskafli: ‘[…]’ R;    ‑leygr: ‘‑læyr’ A, ‘‑ley’ B

kennings

hafleygr
‘the sea-flame ’
   = GOLD

the sea-flame → GOLD
Close

digul ‘crucible’

digull (noun m.; °diguls; diglar): crucible < digulskafl (noun m.): crucible-snowdrift

[4] hafleygr digulskafli: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

hvítum digulskafli,
‘the white crucible-snowdrift, ’
   = SILVER

the white crucible-snowdrift, → SILVER

notes

[4, 6, 8] digulskafli; snæ skála ‘the crucible-snowdrift [SILVER]; snow of scales [SILVER]’: The referent for both of these kennings is ‘silver’, but in Skm the second (and in LaufE both) is taken as a kenning for ‘gold’ (see also Note to Rv Lv 17/2II).

Close

skafli ‘snowdrift’

skafl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): snow-drift < digulskafl (noun m.): crucible-snowdrift

[4] hafleygr digulskafli: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

hvítum digulskafli,
‘the white crucible-snowdrift, ’
   = SILVER

the white crucible-snowdrift, → SILVER

notes

[4, 6, 8] digulskafli; snæ skála ‘the crucible-snowdrift [SILVER]; snow of scales [SILVER]’: The referent for both of these kennings is ‘silver’, but in Skm the second (and in LaufE both) is taken as a kenning for ‘gold’ (see also Note to Rv Lv 17/2II).

Close

Aldri ‘Never’

aldri (adv.): never

Close

eldi ‘fire’

eldi (noun n.): fire

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

áls ‘of the eel’s’

1. áll (noun m.; °dat. ál; álar): eel

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

áls ‘of the eel’s’

1. áll (noun m.; °dat. ál; álar): eel

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

hryn ‘resounding’

hryn- ((prefix)): roaring- < hrynbraut (noun f.)

[6] hryn‑: ‘h[…]n‑’ U, dyn‑ C

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

hryn ‘resounding’

hryn- ((prefix)): roaring- < hrynbraut (noun f.)

[6] hryn‑: ‘h[…]n‑’ U, dyn‑ C

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < hrynbraut (noun f.)

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < hrynbraut (noun f.)

kennings

eldi hrynbrautar áls;
‘fire of the eel’s resounding road; ’
   = GOLD

the eel’s resounding road; → SEA
fire of the SEA → GOLD
Close

skála ‘of scales’

skál (noun f.; °-ar, acc. -/-u; -ir/-ar): scales, cup

[6] skála: ‘[…]ala’ R

kennings

snæ skála
‘snow of scales ’
   = SILVER

snow of scales → SILVER

notes

[4, 6, 8] digulskafli; snæ skála ‘the crucible-snowdrift [SILVER]; snow of scales [SILVER]’: The referent for both of these kennings is ‘silver’, but in Skm the second (and in LaufE both) is taken as a kenning for ‘gold’ (see also Note to Rv Lv 17/2II).

Close

ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

viðr ‘performs’

2. viða (verb): gain, bring about

[7] viðr: so R, Tˣ, A, veðr W, 2368ˣ, 743ˣ, vinnr U, ‘[…]’ B, við 744ˣ, C

Close

folka ‘of armies’

folk (noun n.): people

kennings

fellir folka
‘the feller of armies ’
   = WARRIOR

the feller of armies → WARRIOR
Close

fellir ‘the feller’

fellir (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i): slayer, feller

[7] fellir: ‘[…]’ R, ‘follir’ Tˣ, fellis C

kennings

fellir folka
‘the feller of armies ’
   = WARRIOR

the feller of armies → WARRIOR
Close

fram ‘glorious’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away < framræði (noun n.)

[8] framræði snæ: ‘[…]’ R

Close

ræði ‘deeds’

ræði (noun n.; °; -): [deeds, exploit] < framræði (noun n.)

[8] framræði snæ: ‘[…]’ R;    ‑ræði: ‑ræða C

Close

snæ ‘snow’

snjór (noun m.): snow

[8] framræði snæ: ‘[…]’ R

kennings

snæ skála
‘snow of scales ’
   = SILVER

snow of scales → SILVER

notes

[4, 6, 8] digulskafli; snæ skála ‘the crucible-snowdrift [SILVER]; snow of scales [SILVER]’: The referent for both of these kennings is ‘silver’, but in Skm the second (and in LaufE both) is taken as a kenning for ‘gold’ (see also Note to Rv Lv 17/2II).

Close

bræða ‘be melted’

2. bræða (verb; °-dd-): tar

[8] bræða: breiða Tˣ, hræða C

notes

[8] bræða ‘be melted’: The verb is used impersonally. The sense of the clause ‘never can snow of scales [SILVER] be melted by fire of the eel’s resounding road [SEA > GOLD]’ is that cold silver (‘snow’) cannot be melted by hot gold (‘fire’) because, unlike fire, gold does not give off any heat.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As st. 7 above. Snær skála ‘snow of scales’ is given as an example of a kenning for ‘gold’ in Skm, and in LaufE that kenning and digulskafl ‘crucible-snowdrift’ are listed as examples of kennings for ‘gold’. See Note to ll. 4, 6, 8 below.

This stanza follows st. 7 above in Skm, and it is preceded by Ok enn sem hann kvað ‘And again as he said’. In LaufE the stanza is mistakenly attributed to Einarr skálaglamm ‘Tinkle-scales’ Helgason (EskálI), the poet who composed the stanza (Eskál Hardr 1I) which precedes this stanza in that compilation. In 2368ˣ the stanza is presented as two separate helmingar. — Ms. R is damaged at the top of fol. 33r, and W, which offers the best readings, has been chosen as the main ms. Because B is almost impossible to read, 744ˣ has been used selectively here.

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