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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Ingdr 3II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Ingadrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 564-5.

Einarr SkúlasonIngadrápa

Út lét stǫng á Stræti
sterkr dýrligra merkja
— dúðusk dǫrr — af reiði
Dags sonr bera fagra.
Hnigu menn í gný Gunnar
gagls fyr strengjar hagli;
brœðr hafa barzk í miðri
Bjǫrgyn fyr ósynju.

{Sterkr sonr Dags} lét bera fagra stǫng dýrligra merkja út á Stræti af reiði; dǫrr dúðusk. Menn hnigu fyr {hagli strengjar} í {gný {gagls Gunnar}}; brœðr hafa barzk í miðri Bjǫrgyn fyr ósynju.

{The strong son of Dagr} [= Grégóríus] let the fair pole of the precious standard be carried out onto Stræti (‘the Street’) with wrath; spears shook. Men sank down before {the hail of the bowstring} [ARROWS] in {the din {of Gunnr’s <valkyrie’s> gosling}} [RAVEN/EAGLE > BATTLE]; brothers have fought in the middle of Bergen without cause.

Mss: Mork(37v) (Mork); FskAˣ(384) (Fsk)

Readings: [2] sterkr: sterk FskAˣ    [4] sonr: so FskAˣ, son Mork    [7] brœðr: brœðir FskAˣ;    í miðri: á víðri Mork, miðri FskAˣ    [8] ‑yn: ‑vin FskAˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 476, Skj BI, 448, Skald I, 221, NN §§2538, 2990B; Mork 1867, 235, Mork 1928-32, 458, Andersson and Gade 2000, 401, 495 (Hsona); ÍF 29, 337 (ch. 99).

Context: As st. 2 above.

Notes: [1] á Stræti ‘onto Stræti (“the Street”)’: Stræti (lit. ‘street’) was the ON name of the street (now Øvregaten) stretching from Mariekirken (Máríukirkja, the Church of S. Mary) to Olavskirken (Óláfskirkja, the Church of S. Óláfr) in Bergen (see map in ÍF 30). The p. n. is also given in the prose of Mork (Mork 1928-32, 547: af stretino) and in Hkr (ÍF 28, 340: af strætinu), but not in Fsk. — [2, 4] sterkr sonr Dags ‘the strong son of Dagr [= Grégóríus]’: For Grégóríus Dagsson, see ‘Biographies of Other Dignitaries’ in Introduction to this vol. and ESk Elfv. — [2] sterkr (m. nom. sg.) ‘strong’: If the FskAˣ variant is adopted, sterk (n. acc. pl.) would qualify dǫrr (n. acc. pl.) ‘spears’ (l. 3). For dǫrr ‘spears’, see Note to Gísl Magnkv 12/8. — [2] dýrligra merkja ‘of the precious standard’: Lit. ‘of the precious standards’. Pl. used with a sg. meaning. — [5-6] gný gagls Gunnar ‘the din of Gunnr’s <valkyrie’s> gosling [RAVEN/EAGLE > BATTLE]’: Gný Gunnar ‘the din of Gunnr’ is in itself a kenning for ‘battle’. Kock (NN §§2538, 2990B) takes the prepositional phrase í gný Gunnar gagls in its literal meaning (‘in the screeching of Gunnr’s gosling’, i.e. ‘in the screeching of the raven/eagle’), an interpretation which seems rather strained. — [7-8] í miðri Bjǫrgyn ‘in the middle of Bergen’: The FskAˣ variant (miðri ‘middle’) violates the metre since it requires an additional syllable. The Mork reading (á víðri Bjǫrgyn ‘at/in spacious Bergen’) appears to be a lectio facilior, because that adj. occurs very frequently in combinations with place names (see LP: víðr). The battle did take place in the middle of Bergen, and Sigurðr and his men were attacked while they were drinking in a hall owned by the woman Sigríðr sæta ‘Grass Widow’. See also Note to l. 1 above.


  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  5. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  6. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  7. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  8. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  9. ÍF 30 = Sverris saga. Ed. Þorleifur Hauksson. 2007.
  10. Mork 1867 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1867. Morkinskinna: Pergamentsbog fra første halvdel af det trettende aarhundrede. Indeholdende en af de ældste optegnelser af norske kongesagaer. Oslo: Bentzen.
  11. Internal references
  12. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  13. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  14. Not published: do not cite (HSigII)
  15. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr Skúlason, Elfarvísur’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 565-7.
  16. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Gísl Illugason, Erfikvæði about Magnús berfœttr 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 424-5.

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