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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 68VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 68’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 62-3.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
676869

svát ‘so that’

svát (conj.): so that, so as

notes

[1] svát ‘so that’: St. 68, joined to the preceding ll. by this subordinating conj., continues the prayer begun in the second helmingr of st. 67.

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lausnara ‘of the Saviour’

lausnari (noun m.; °-a;): saviour, redeemer

kennings

nafnkuðr langvinr lausnara
‘the well-known old friend of the Saviour might ’
   = Óláfr

the well-known old friend of the Saviour might → Óláfr
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lang ‘old’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long < langvinr (noun m.): old friend

[2] langvinr: so Bb, ‘lang vinn’ Flat

kennings

nafnkuðr langvinr lausnara
‘the well-known old friend of the Saviour might ’
   = Óláfr

the well-known old friend of the Saviour might → Óláfr
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vinr ‘friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend < langvinr (noun m.): old friend

[2] langvinr: so Bb, ‘lang vinn’ Flat

kennings

nafnkuðr langvinr lausnara
‘the well-known old friend of the Saviour might ’
   = Óláfr

the well-known old friend of the Saviour might → Óláfr
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strangri ‘the great’

strangr (adj.): strong

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[3] ór: ok Bb

notes

[3, 4] ór nauðum við trú ‘from distress on account of the faith’: Taking Flat’s ór rather than Bb’s ok (favoured by both Skj B and Skald), the phrase must be read as in apposition to frá strangri kvǫl ‘from great torment’ (l. 2). Bb’s text allows the reading frá strangri kvǫl ok nauðum við trú ‘from great torment and distress on account of the faith’.

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nauðum ‘distress’

neyð (noun f.; °dat. -): need, distress

notes

[3, 4] ór nauðum við trú ‘from distress on account of the faith’: Taking Flat’s ór rather than Bb’s ok (favoured by both Skj B and Skald), the phrase must be read as in apposition to frá strangri kvǫl ‘from great torment’ (l. 2). Bb’s text allows the reading frá strangri kvǫl ok nauðum við trú ‘from great torment and distress on account of the faith’.

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nafn ‘the well’

nafn (noun n.; °-s; *-): name < nafnkunnr (adj.): [famous]

[4] nafnkuðr: ‘nagl kvaddr’ Bb

kennings

nafnkuðr langvinr lausnara
‘the well-known old friend of the Saviour might ’
   = Óláfr

the well-known old friend of the Saviour might → Óláfr
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kuðr ‘known’

kunnr (adj.): known (?) < nafnkunnr (adj.): [famous]

[4] nafnkuðr: ‘nagl kvaddr’ Bb

kennings

nafnkuðr langvinr lausnara
‘the well-known old friend of the Saviour might ’
   = Óláfr

the well-known old friend of the Saviour might → Óláfr
Close

við ‘on account of’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[3, 4] ór nauðum við trú ‘from distress on account of the faith’: Taking Flat’s ór rather than Bb’s ok (favoured by both Skj B and Skald), the phrase must be read as in apposition to frá strangri kvǫl ‘from great torment’ (l. 2). Bb’s text allows the reading frá strangri kvǫl ok nauðum við trú ‘from great torment and distress on account of the faith’.

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trú ‘the faith’

trú (noun f.; °-ar): faith, belief

notes

[3, 4] ór nauðum við trú ‘from distress on account of the faith’: Taking Flat’s ór rather than Bb’s ok (favoured by both Skj B and Skald), the phrase must be read as in apposition to frá strangri kvǫl ‘from great torment’ (l. 2). Bb’s text allows the reading frá strangri kvǫl ok nauðum við trú ‘from great torment and distress on account of the faith’.

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jafnan ‘constantly’

jafnan (adv.): always

[4] jafnan: stadda Bb

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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víga ‘of battle’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

kennings

veljendr skýs víga,
‘choosers of the cloud of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
choosers of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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víga ‘of battle’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

kennings

veljendr skýs víga,
‘choosers of the cloud of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
choosers of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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skýs ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

veljendr skýs víga,
‘choosers of the cloud of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
choosers of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

skýs ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

veljendr skýs víga,
‘choosers of the cloud of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
choosers of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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þeir ‘those’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

[5] þeirs (‘þeir er’): ‘þar er’ Bb

notes

[5] þeirs ‘those ... who’: The eds of Skj B and Skald prefer Bb’s reading þars ‘where’.

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s ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] þeirs (‘þeir er’): ‘þar er’ Bb

notes

[5] þeirs ‘those ... who’: The eds of Skj B and Skald prefer Bb’s reading þars ‘where’.

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veljendr ‘choosers’

veljandi (noun m.): [choosers, chooser]

[6] veljendr: ‘velendr’ Flat, ‘velivndr’ Bb

kennings

veljendr skýs víga,
‘choosers of the cloud of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

the cloud of battle → SHIELD
choosers of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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framan ‘splendid’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

[6] framan: glaðir Bb

notes

[6] framan ‘splendid’: The reading of Flat, here understood as an adj. qualifying þenna brag ‘this poem’ (l. 8). Other eds choose Bb’s reading glaðir ‘happy’ (l. 6), which can be construed with the base-word of the kenning for warriors, veljendr.

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Krists ‘Christ’

Kristr (noun m.; °-s/-, dat. -i; -ar): Christ

[7] Krists: Krist Bb

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af ‘about’

af (prep.): from

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al ‘’

al- ((prefix)): very < alnenninn (adj.): [very active]

[8] alnennins: so Bb, ‘almenins’ Flat

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nennins ‘of the energetic’

nenninn (adj.): vigorous < alnenninn (adj.): [very active]

[8] alnennins: so Bb, ‘almenins’ Flat

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